• Reagent
  • Pentafluorobenzoic acid is prepared by treating pentafluorophenyllithium (or pentafluorophenyl Grignard reagent) with carbon dioxide. (wikipedia.org)
  • hydrolysis
  • These compounds are typically prepared by electrochemical fluorination of the carboxylic acid fluorides followed by hydrolysis: CnH(2n+1)COF + (2n+1) HF → CnF(2n+1)COF + (2n+1) H2 CnF(2n+1)COF + H2O → CnF(2n+1)CO2H + HF Larger PFCAs such as perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) are under scrutiny because they are bioaccumulative although it is unclear whether their presence poses a risk. (wikipedia.org)
  • When heated, aspergillomarasmine A decomposes between 225° and 236 °C. Hydrolysis produces L-aspartic acid and racemic[why? (wikipedia.org)
  • acetic acid
  • It is a structural analogue of acetic acid with the three hydrogen atoms replaced by three fluorine atoms and is a colorless liquid with a sharp odor similar to vinegar. (wikipedia.org)
  • TFA is a stronger acid than acetic acid, having an acid ionisation constant that is approximately 34,000 times higher, as the highly electronegative fluorine atoms and consequent electron-withdrawing nature of the trifluoromethyl group weakens the oxygen-hydrogen bond and stabilises the anionic conjugate base. (wikipedia.org)
  • This chapter provides the diffusion coefficient of tetrachloro-methane in trifluoro-acetic acid at different concentrations measured using NMR spin echo pulse gradient. (springer.com)
  • Winkelmann J. (2018) Diffusion coefficient of tetrachloro-methane in trifluoro-acetic acid. (springer.com)
  • aspartic acid
  • Picrophilus aspartate racemase exhibited high substrate specificity to aspartic acid. (springer.com)
  • In P. teres, a biosynthetic precursor of aspergillomarasmine A, L,L-N-(2-amino-2-carboxyethyl)-aspartic acid has also been isolated and found to contribute to the phytotoxic properties of this microbe. (wikipedia.org)
  • contradictory] With nitrous acid aspergillomarasmine A is deaminated,[clarification needed] and isoserine with aspartic acid is formed. (wikipedia.org)
  • amino acid
  • Because Picrophilus aspartate racemase is highly specific to aspartate, other amino acid racemases might exist in Picrophilus torridus . (springer.com)
  • Kawakami R, Ohmori T, Sakuraba H, Ohshima T (2015) Identification of a novel amino acid racemase from a hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus horikoshii OT-3 induced by d -amino acids. (springer.com)
  • Liu L, Iwata K, Yohda M, Miki K (2002) Structural insight into gene duplication, gene fusion and domain swapping in the evolution of PLP-independent amino acid racemases. (springer.com)
  • organic
  • Trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) is a stable, hygroscopic, volatile and low-boiling organic acid. (alfa.com)
  • The acidity of IBX which has been determined in water (pKa 2.4) and DMSO (pKa 6.65) is known to affect organic reactions, for instance acid-catalyzed isomerization accompanying oxidations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Longer
  • Longer chain perfluorinated carboxylic acids, e.g. with five to nine carbons, are useful fluorosurfactants and emulsifiers used in the production of Teflon and related fluoropolymers. (wikipedia.org)
  • although
  • Brønsted acids may also be used, although cationic, skeletal rearrangements, and nucleophilic attack of the conjugate base on the carbocation may be problematic. (wikipedia.org)