• Adie
  • She noted that pathological destruction of nerve cells in the ciliary ganglion that is found in all cases of Adie pupil. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tonic pupils are usually due to Adie syndrome, but other diseases can denervate the ciliary ganglion. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the early 20th century, William John Adie described a second type of pupil that could "accommodate but not react. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adie syndrome is a neurological disorder characterized by a tonically dilated pupil that reacts slowly to light but shows a more definite response to accommodation (i.e., light-near dissociation). (wikipedia.org)
  • pupillary
  • The right pupil was sluggishly reactive with a trace afferent pupillary defect. (healio.com)
  • In ischemic lesions of the oculomotor nerve, pupillary function is usually spared whereas in compressive lesions the pupil is involved. (omicsgroup.org)
  • A relative afferent pupillary defect (RAPD) also known as a Marcus Gunn pupil does not cause anisocoria. (omicsgroup.org)
  • Finally, an abnormality of the third cranial nerve (a nerve that comes from the brain to the eye socket and controls eyelid position, eye movement, and pupil size) can cause a pupillary abnormality. (aapos.org)
  • Thompson and Kardon (2006) summarize the present view: The evidence supports a midbrain cause of the AR pupil, provided one follows Loewenfeld's definition of the AR pupil as small pupils that react very poorly to light and yet seem to retain a normal pupillary near response that is definitely not tonic. (wikipedia.org)
  • To settle the question of whether the AR pupil is of central or peripheral origin, it will be necessary to perform iris transillumination (or a magnified slit-lamp examination) in a substantial number of patients who have a pupillary light-near dissociation (with and without tonicity of the near reaction), perhaps in many parts of the world. (wikipedia.org)
  • Episodic segmental iris mydriasis was first described and termed "tadpole pupil" in 1912 by HS Thompson The primary symptom is pupillary distortion (changing of the size or shape of the pupil). (wikipedia.org)
  • Dilated Pupillary Exam: special drops expand the pupil, which then allows doctors to examine the retina. (wikipedia.org)
  • dilates
  • conversely when in a dark room the pupil usually dilates to allow more light to enter the eye [See figure (aapos.org)
  • When the patient focuses on a more distant object (say the far side of the room), the pupil (which would normally dilate immediately) remains constricted for several minutes, and then slowly dilates back to the expected size. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the smaller pupil dilates in response to instillation of apraclonidine eye drops, this suggests Horner's syndrome is present. (wikipedia.org)
  • autonomic
  • It is caused by damage to the postganglionic fibers of the parasympathetic innervation of the eye, usually by a viral or bacterial infection which causes inflammation, and affects the pupil of the eye and the autonomic nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • ciliary ganglion
  • In classical anatomy, the ciliary ganglion is said to have three "roots:" a parasympathetic root of ciliary ganglion originating from Edinger westphal nucleus (or motor root) a sympathetic root of ciliary ganglion from internal carotid plexus a sensory root of ciliary ganglion Diseases of the ciliary ganglion produce a tonic pupil. (wikipedia.org)
  • syndrome
  • Ross syndrome is an uncommon disorder characterized by the triad of segmental anhidrosis, hyporeflexia, and tonic pupils. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • This uncommon syndrome involves vertical gaze palsy associated with pupils that "accommodate but do not react. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to the lack of detail in the older literature and the scarcity of AR pupils at the present time, it is not known whether syphilis can cause Parinaud syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • A test for Horner Syndrome is highly recommended to all the patients who have a history of tadpole pupil episodes because studies have linked the two conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • irregular
  • Only the re-innervated segments contract, producing a slightly irregular contour to the pupil. (wikipedia.org)
  • Contractions of the iris dilator muscle, a smooth muscle of the eye running radially in the iris, can cause irregular distortion of the pupil, thus making the pupil look tadpole shaped and giving this condition its name. (wikipedia.org)
  • darkness
  • Here, we investigated the effects of total darkness on rhythm-dependent markers and the ipRGC-driven pupil response in humans. (arvojournals.org)
  • These tests include pharmacological testing (testing for an effective drug against a specific disease or condition), a complete ocular examination (a test that examines the entire eye), and video pupillography (recording and analysis of spontaneous pupil behavior in darkness). (wikipedia.org)
  • symptoms
  • Although women generally have the tadpole pupil, men are not unaffected by this disease and some have been reported to experience the symptoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • condition
  • In this condition, there is often ptosis (droopiness) of the upper eyelid on the same side as the dilated pupil. (aapos.org)
  • Argyll Robertson pupils were named after Douglas Argyll Robertson (1837-1909), a Scottish ophthalmologist and surgeon who described the condition in the mid-1860s in the context of neurosyphilis. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the pupil takes on the shape of a tadpole, the condition is called tadpole pupil. (wikipedia.org)
  • The examinations can determine if any of the muscles of the eye or retina, which is linked to the pupil, have any problems that could relate to the tadpole pupil condition. (wikipedia.org)
  • light
  • In some individuals, slight differential response of pupils to the light may be seen. (medhelp.org)
  • The pupil is the window of the eye through which light passes to the lens and the retina. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Both pupils were light-reactive and isocoric, with 5 mm diameters under scotopic illumination. (harvard.edu)
  • Pupil responses to short and long wavelength light were measured immediately before and after sequestration as an assessment of ipRGC activity. (arvojournals.org)
  • The empty hole in the middle, which allows light to enter the eye, is called the pupil. (aapos.org)
  • The eye is made up of the sclera, the iris, and the pupil, a black hole located at the center of the eye with the main function of allowing light to pass to the retina. (wikipedia.org)
  • size
  • Normally the size of the pupil is the same in each eye, with both eyes dilating or constricting together. (aapos.org)
  • The doctor will evaluate the size of the pupils and how they react to bright and dim lighting. (aapos.org)
  • produces
  • The pathophysiologic mechanism which produces an Argyll Robertson pupil is unclear, but is believed to be the result of bilateral damage to the pretectal nuclei in the midbrain. (wikipedia.org)
  • consists
  • Due to certain muscle spasms in the eye, the pupil can resemble a tadpole, which consists of a circular body, no arms or legs, and a tail. (wikipedia.org)
  • eyes
  • I wasn't too worried until recently i noticed the aggravated eyes pupil was dilating differently than the other. (medhelp.org)
  • left eye
  • On the first postoperative day the patient developed increased intraocular pressure (IOP) and a fixed, mid-dilated pupil in her left eye. (harvard.edu)