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  • abnormally
  • If the examiner is unsure whether the abnormal pupil is the constricted or dilated one, and if a one-sided drooping of the eyelid is present then the abnormally sized pupil can be presumed to be the one on the side of the ptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inflammation
  • It is caused by damage to the postganglionic fibers of the parasympathetic innervation of the eye, usually by a viral or bacterial infection which causes inflammation, and affects the pupil of the eye and the autonomic nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • dilates
  • When the patient focuses on a more distant object (say the far side of the room), the pupil (which would normally dilate immediately) remains constricted for several minutes, and then slowly dilates back to the expected size. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the smaller pupil dilates in response to instillation of apraclonidine eye drops, this suggests Horner's syndrome is present. (wikipedia.org)
  • ciliary ganglion
  • In classical anatomy, the ciliary ganglion is said to have three "roots:" a parasympathetic root of ciliary ganglion originating from Edinger westphal nucleus (or motor root) a sympathetic root of ciliary ganglion from internal carotid plexus a sensory root of ciliary ganglion Diseases of the ciliary ganglion produce a tonic pupil. (wikipedia.org)
  • reactive
  • The author suggests that the abbreviation PERRLA (pupils equal, round, reactive to light and accommodation) be avoided. (medscape.com)
  • Miosis
  • The postganglionic axons run in the short ciliary nerves and innervate two eye muscles: the sphincter pupillae constricts the pupil, a movement known as Miosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Horner's
  • In Horner's syndrome sympathetic nerve fibers have a defect, therefore the pupil of the involved eye will not dilate in darkness. (wikipedia.org)
  • symptoms
  • Although women generally have the tadpole pupil, men are not unaffected by this disease and some have been reported to experience the symptoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Syndrome
  • Ross syndrome is an uncommon disorder characterized by the triad of segmental anhidrosis, hyporeflexia, and tonic pupils. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Due to the lack of detail in the older literature and the scarcity of AR pupils at the present time, it is not known whether syphilis can cause Parinaud syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • A test for Horner Syndrome is highly recommended to all the patients who have a history of tadpole pupil episodes because studies have linked the two conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • darkness
  • These tests include pharmacological testing (testing for an effective drug against a specific disease or condition), a complete ocular examination (a test that examines the entire eye), and video pupillography (recording and analysis of spontaneous pupil behavior in darkness). (wikipedia.org)
  • irregular
  • Only the re-innervated segments contract, producing a slightly irregular contour to the pupil. (wikipedia.org)
  • Contractions of the iris dilator muscle, a smooth muscle of the eye running radially in the iris, can cause irregular distortion of the pupil, thus making the pupil look tadpole shaped and giving this condition its name. (wikipedia.org)
  • light
  • Key aspects of the physical examination (eg, pupil size in light, pupil size in the dark, pupil reactivity to light and dark) help to localize the problem. (medscape.com)
  • Pupil size (in mm) should be assessed in both light and dark with the patient fixating in the distance. (medscape.com)
  • Illumination of the pupil by shining a light obliquely from below the patient's face and a handheld pupil gauge (found on most near-vision cards) assist in accurate assessment. (medscape.com)
  • When assessing pupil light reaction, be careful to shine the light along the visual axis (this can be problematic if significant ocular misalignment exists). (medscape.com)
  • In some individuals, slight differential response of pupils to the light may be seen. (medhelp.org)
  • The eye is made up of the sclera, the iris, and the pupil, a black hole located at the center of the eye with the main function of allowing light to pass to the retina. (wikipedia.org)
  • condition
  • Argyll Robertson pupils were named after Douglas Argyll Robertson (1837-1909), a Scottish ophthalmologist and surgeon who described the condition in the mid-1860s in the context of neurosyphilis. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this condition, the difference between pupils is usually less than 1 mm. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the pupil takes on the shape of a tadpole, the condition is called tadpole pupil. (wikipedia.org)
  • The examinations can determine if any of the muscles of the eye or retina, which is linked to the pupil, have any problems that could relate to the tadpole pupil condition. (wikipedia.org)
  • produces
  • The pathophysiologic mechanism which produces an Argyll Robertson pupil is unclear, but is believed to be the result of bilateral damage to the pretectal nuclei in the midbrain. (wikipedia.org)
  • consists
  • Due to certain muscle spasms in the eye, the pupil can resemble a tadpole, which consists of a circular body, no arms or legs, and a tail. (wikipedia.org)
  • include
  • Some precautions include regular visits to an ophthalmologist or optometrist and general testing of the pupil and internal eye through fundamental examinations (listed below). (wikipedia.org)
  • eyes
  • I wasn't too worried until recently i noticed the aggravated eyes pupil was dilating differently than the other. (medhelp.org)
  • Bach's
  • In addition there are numerous other later copies by the circle of Bach, including copies of the first movement of BWV 527 and the slow movement of BWV 529 made by Bach's former pupil from Weimar, Johann Caspar Vogler. (wikipedia.org)
  • iris
  • The lens is the part of the eye behind the iris and the pupil which focuses light onto the retina at the back of the eye, enabling long and short distance vision. (baar.com)
  • The eye is made up of the sclera, the iris, and the pupil, a black hole located at the center of the eye with the main function of allowing light to pass to the retina. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tadpole pupil, also known as episodic segmental iris mydriasis, is an ocular condition where the muscles of the iris begin to spasm causing the elongation, or lengthening, of parts of the iris. (wikipedia.org)
  • Contractions of the iris dilator muscle, a smooth muscle of the eye running radially in the iris, can cause irregular distortion of the pupil, thus making the pupil look tadpole shaped and giving this condition its name. (wikipedia.org)
  • Episodic segmental iris mydriasis was first described and termed "tadpole pupil" in 1912 by HS Thompson The primary symptom is pupillary distortion (changing of the size or shape of the pupil). (wikipedia.org)
  • The longan (from Cantonese lùhng-ngáahn 龍眼, literally "dragon eye"), is so named because it resembles an eyeball when its fruit is shelled (the black seed shows through the translucent flesh like a pupil/iris). (wikipedia.org)
  • retina
  • The examinations can determine if any of the muscles of the eye or retina, which is linked to the pupil, have any problems that could relate to the tadpole pupil condition. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dilated Pupillary Exam: special drops expand the pupil, which then allows doctors to examine the retina. (wikipedia.org)
  • case
  • Often, as in the case of all good tonics, a gradual improvement is felt over time. (baar.com)
  • For example, in this specific case (Figure 1), the pupil stretches out to a 7 o'clock position, termed this because the pupil is pointing in the same direction the hands on a clock would at 7 o'clock. (wikipedia.org)
  • In any case, both Wecker and Schwemmer were trained by Johann Erasmus Kindermann, one of the founders of the Nuremberg musical tradition, who had been at one time a pupil of Johann Staden. (wikipedia.org)
  • disease
  • When locally occurred during the want several disease, or a extra origin of pupils, it was found disagreeable to sponge the healing of the scalpel disease generally, for same principal of drying it, as either the one or the small of those laws was found to carry off the chloroform con therefore, here to lessen little ently its evening on the malarial disease nails. (hughesanderson.com)
  • These tests include pharmacological testing (testing for an effective drug against a specific disease or condition), a complete ocular examination (a test that examines the entire eye), and video pupillography (recording and analysis of spontaneous pupil behavior in darkness). (wikipedia.org)