• secondhand
  • Representatives of the gambling industry with ties to the tobacco industry oppose smoke-free workplaces by claiming that smoke-free environments hurt gambling revenue and by promoting ventilation as a solution to secondhand smoke. (bmj.com)
  • 2, 3 At the international level, the tobacco industry has used its lawyers to secretly orchestrate scientific consultants to influence public and policymaker opinions on secondhand smoke. (bmj.com)
  • The complex composition of secondhand smoke (SHS) provides a range of constituents that can be measured in environmental samples (air, dust and on surfaces) and therefore used to assess non-smokers' exposure to tobacco smoke. (bmj.com)
  • In this series of articles, three topic assessments summarising current knowledge about measuring secondhand smoke exposure (SHSe) are presented, covering self-reported measures, environmental measurements and biomarkers, and are based on a multidisciplinary expert meeting held in late 2008 at Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, USA and supported by the Flight Attendant Medical Research Institute (FAMRI). (bmj.com)
  • To determine the effects of aging on the toxicity of sidestream tobacco smoke, the complex chemical mixture that enters the air from the lit end of burning cigarettes and constitutes the vast bulk of secondhand smoke. (bmj.com)
  • These results help explain the relatively large biological effects of secondhand smoke compared to equivalent mass doses of mainstream smoke. (bmj.com)
  • Objective To determine the impact on bar employee's health and exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) before and after the implementation of Michigan's Dr Ron Davis smoke-free air law that went into effect on 1 May 2010, prohibiting smoking in places of work, including bars. (bmj.com)
  • Our analysis of the association between demographic characteristics and support for tobacco control over time provide important contextual information for community education efforts on secondhand smoke and smoke-free air strategies. (nih.gov)
  • smokers
  • Background This study examined whether thirdhand smoke (THS) persists in smokers' homes after they move out and non-smokers move in, and whether new non-smoking residents are exposed to THS in these homes. (bmj.com)
  • Public support for smoke-free air strategies among smokers and nonsmokers, New York City, 2010-2012. (nih.gov)
  • Among both smokers and nonsmokers, we observed increased awareness of smoke-free regulations in outdoor areas around hospital entrances and grounds and in lines in outdoor waiting areas for buses and taxis. (nih.gov)
  • Mean cotinine was 29 ng/mL (SD, 7.5), 45 ng/mL (SD, 9.7), and 9 ng/mL (SD, 7.4), respectively, among infants of all smokers, infants of four women who acknowledged smoking at 7 months of gestation, and infants of nonsmokers. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Animals are exposed to tobacco smoke and other cigarette by-products through their use as experimental subjects and through contact with smokers, as in the case of pets in houses where smoking takes place. (wikipedia.org)
  • The IARC monographs define mainstream cigarette smoke as that which is emitted by the mouth end of the cigarette and therefore the smoke that human smokers would be exposed to most. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human smokers inhale smoke voluntarily and therefore do so more deeply than do animal test subjects which typically adopt short, shallow breaths when exposed to smoke. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lung cancer in non-smokers, who account for approximately 15% of cases, is often attributed to a combination of genetic factors, radon gas, asbestos, and air pollution. (wikipedia.org)
  • Soil
  • In order to meet demands from the Old World, tobacco was grown in succession, quickly depleting the soil. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are many different types of pollution-related diseases, including those caused by air pollution, contaminated soil and water, sanitation and hygiene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Meanwhile, pollution-related diseases are attributed to exposure to toxins in the air, water, and soil. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amoebiasis Buruli ulcer Campylobacter Cholera Cryptosporidiosis Cyclosporiasis Dracunculiasis (guinea-worm disease) Escherichia coli Fascioliasis Giardiasis Hepatitis Leptospirosis Norovirus Rotavirus Salmonella Schistosomiasis Shigellosis Typhoid fever Lymphatic filariasis Dermatophytosis (ringworm) Scabies Soil transmitted helminthiasis Trachoma Arboviral encephalitis Dengue fever Malaria Onchocerciasis Rift Valley fever Yellow fever Sources of lead poisoning/pollution include mining, smelting, manufacturing and recycling activities. (wikipedia.org)
  • workplace
  • Conclusions The reduction in the SHS biomarkers cotinine and NNAL and reported improvement in respiratory health demonstrates that the Michigan smoke-free workplace law is protecting bar employee health. (bmj.com)
  • Although some progress has been made in reducing smoking prevalence among working adults, additional effective employer interventions need to be implemented, including health insurance coverage for cessation treatments, easily accessible help for those who want to quit, and smoke-free workplace policies. (cdc.gov)
  • Background The effects of workplace second-hand smoke (SHS) on lung function remain uncertain because of a lack of objective measures for SHS exposures. (bmj.com)
  • Workplace exemptions and delays in implementing smoke-free policies and current moves to relax legislation are a major threat to the health of workers. (bmj.com)
  • Incomplete or delayed workplace smoking bans damage respiratory health. (bmj.com)
  • Conclusions
  • Conclusions Both ETS and personal smoking were significantly related to asthma and wheeze in teenagers. (bmj.com)
  • mainstream smoke
  • Some studies referenced in the IARC monographs found that certain, but not all, groups of rats exposed to mainstream smoke were significantly more likely to develop lung tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • estimating overall
  • Monitoring SHS exposure (SHSe) in indoor environments provides useful information on the extent and consequences of SHSe, implementing and evaluating tobacco control programmes and behavioural interventions, and estimating overall burden of disease caused by SHSe. (bmj.com)
  • concentrations
  • The study in middle-aged men found that people living in locations with higher levels of air pollution had lower concentrations of parathyroid hormone and lower levels of bone mineral density. (tobaccoreporter.com)
  • Results Indoor fine particulate (PM 2.5 ) concentrations were 4.4 times as high in smoking premises (267.9 μg/m 3 ) than in non-smoking premises (60.3 μg/m 3 ) and were strongly associated with the probability of permitted smoking (R 2 =0.99). (bmj.com)
  • carcinogenicity
  • A 2004 series of monographs released by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, a part of the World Health Organisation, summarized research from the 1960s onwards about the carcinogenicity of tobacco on various laboratory animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the carcinogenicity of tobacco smoke was first established in humans, various types of animals have also been exposed to tobacco smoke inhalation in attempts to yield further experimental proof and control for various experimental factors, including types of tobacco and levels of exposure, which would be considered unethical in human studies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since the 1960s, the animal most used in testing the carcinogenicity of tobacco smoke has been the Syrian Golden Hamster due to its resistance to pulmonary infections and the infrequency with which it spontaneously develops pulmonary tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to the IARC monographs these studies have proven, and repeatedly confirmed, the carcinogenicity of tobacco smoke for hamsters. (wikipedia.org)
  • Multiple studies have also been conducted to determine the carcinogenicity of environmental tobacco to animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is the mechanism behind the carcinogenicity of benzo[a]pyrene in tobacco smoke, other aromatics, aflatoxin and mustard gas. (wikipedia.org)
  • asthma
  • Background Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) has been reported as a significant risk factor for childhood asthma. (bmj.com)
  • Objective The aim was to study the independent and combined effects of ETS and personal smoking on the prevalence of asthma and wheeze in teenagers. (bmj.com)
  • 9 10 The association between smoking and asthma among adults is not as strong or consistent. (bmj.com)
  • 11 While cross-sectional studies have primarily found relationships between asthma and ex-smoking or ever smoking, 12 several longitudinal studies have found significant associations between current smoking and the onset of asthma. (bmj.com)
  • 1 13 14 Among teenagers, smoking is reported to be a risk factor for asthma and wheeze in both cross-sectional 15 and longitudinal studies. (bmj.com)
  • Most of the time, irregular coughing is caused by a respiratory tract infection but can also be triggered by choking, smoking, air pollution, asthma, gastroesophageal reflux disease, post-nasal drip, chronic bronchitis, lung tumors, heart failure and medications such as ACE inhibitors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Low air quality from factors such as traffic pollution or high ozone levels has been associated with both asthma development and increased asthma severity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Smoking was said by the desert Indians to be a cure for colds, especially if the tobacco was mixed with the leaves of the small Desert Sage, Salvia Dorrii, or the root of Indian Balsam or Cough Root, Leptotaenia multifida, the addition of which was thought to be particularly good for asthma and tuberculosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • levels
  • 7 Because of its low public credibility, the tobacco industry works through front groups and third party allies to fight tobacco control measures at all levels. (bmj.com)
  • 5, 6 At all levels, the tobacco industry has organised or even created third party allies in the hospitality industry 4, 8 to oppose smoke-free environments and has worked through consultants to present ventilation or air cleaning as a viable alternative to smoke-free environments, particularly for the hospitality industry. (bmj.com)
  • Mothers who smoked had higher salivary cortisol levels and lower sAA activity compared to nonsmoking mothers. (biomedsearch.com)
  • A small number of cases are due to high levels of air pollution or bacteria such as Mycoplasma pneumoniae or Bordetella pertussis. (wikipedia.org)
  • People are exposed to elevated levels of inorganic arsenic through drinking contaminated water, using contaminated water in food preparation and irrigation of food crops, industrial processes, eating contaminated food and smoking tobacco. (wikipedia.org)
  • control
  • Tobacco control advocates need to be aware of the connections between the tobacco and gambling industries in relation to smoke-free environments and work to expose them to the public and to policy makers. (bmj.com)
  • Tobacco Smoke Pollution-prevention & control. (nap.edu)
  • Bureau of Chronic Disease Prevention and Tobacco Control, New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, 42-09 28th Street, 9th Floor, CN-46, Queens, NY 11101-4312. (nih.gov)
  • Bureau of Chronic Disease Prevention and Tobacco Control, New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, New York, New York. (nih.gov)
  • The IARC monographs, referencing studies which used various methods of smoke inhalation, concluded that a significantly greater number of pulmonary tumors occurred among mice exposed to smoke than those in the control groups. (wikipedia.org)
  • Methods
  • These methods include thracheostomy, in which smoke is pumped through a tube directly into a hole cut in the dog's throat, or through a mask fitted to the dog's face. (wikipedia.org)
  • successfully
  • 9, 10 While continuing efforts to use the hospitality industry 4, 8 to oppose smoke-free policies 4, 8 during the mid to late 1990s, the tobacco industry successfully mobilised the casino segment of the gambling industry to oppose smoke-free policies and promote ventilation as an alternative to smoke-free areas. (bmj.com)
  • In 1612, six years after the settlement of Jamestown, John Rolfe was credited as the first settler to successfully raise tobacco as a cash crop. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2001
  • QV 137 C6225 I. Title: Assessing the science base for tobacco harm reduction. (nap.edu)
  • regulation
  • In the 1960s, 1970s, and 1990s, the United States Congress enacted a series of Clean Air Acts which significantly strengthened regulation of air pollution. (wikipedia.org)
  • adults
  • Current cigarette smoking prevalence among all adults aged greater than or equal to18 years has decreased 42.4 percent since 1965, but declines in current smoking prevalence have slowed during the past 5 years (declining from 20.9 percent in 2005 to 19.3 percent in 2010) and did not meet the Healthy People 2010 (HP2010) objective to reduce cigarette smoking among adults to less than or equal to12 percent (1-3). (cdc.gov)
  • therefore, CDC analyzed National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) data for 2004-2010 to describe current cigarette smoking prevalence among currently working U.S. adults by industry and occupation. (cdc.gov)
  • This report describes the results of that analysis, which found that, overall, age-adjusted cigarette smoking prevalence among working adults was 19.6 percent and was highest among those with less than a high school education (28.4 percent), those with no health insurance (28.6 percent), those living below the federal poverty level (27.7 percent), and those aged 18-24 years (23.8 percent). (cdc.gov)
  • We investigated trends in awareness of existing smoke-free rules publicized with new signage and public support for new smoke-free air strategies by using 3 waves of survey data from population-based samples of smoking and nonsmoking adults in New York City (2010-2012). (nih.gov)
  • Regardless of smoking status, women, racial/ethnic minorities, and adults aged 25 to 44 years were more likely than men, non-Hispanic whites, and adults aged 65 years or older to support smoke-free air strategies. (nih.gov)
  • generally
  • To describe and understand the relationship between the tobacco and gambling industries in connection to their collaborative efforts to prevent smoke-free casinos and gambling facilities and fight smoke-free policies generally. (bmj.com)
  • 16 nm - technology is projected to be reached by semiconductor companies in the 2013 timeframe 18 nm - diameter of tobacco mosaic virus (Generally, viruses range in size from 20 nm to 450 nm. (wikipedia.org)
  • lung cancer
  • German scientists identified a link between smoking and lung cancer in the late 1920s, leading to the first anti-smoking campaign in modern history, albeit one truncated by the collapse of Nazi Germany at the end of World War II. (wikipedia.org)
  • doses
  • Despite these variables, the doses of smoke administered to these animals can be determined by examining tissue and blood samples. (wikipedia.org)