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  • progression
  • Tissue markers, including estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, HER2/neu, Ki67, and COX-2 expression, as well as comprehensive molecular profiling of gene expression have also been evaluated as prognostic indicators of progression, but the results remain controversial ( 3 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • specific
  • They must survive in the circulation to reach a secondary site in which they arrest because of physical size or binding to specific tissues. (aacrjournals.org)
  • An antibody microarray (also known as antibody array) is a specific form of protein microarray. (wikipedia.org)
  • Initial uses of antibody-based array systems included detecting IgGs and specific subclasses, analyzing antigens, screening recombinant antibodies, studying yeast protein kinases, analyzing autoimmune antibodies, and examining protein-protein interactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • surface
  • While 96-well plate-based antibody arrays have high-throughput capability, the small surface area in each well limits the number of antibody spots and thus, the number of analytes detected. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemically derivatized glass slides allow for printing of sub-microliter sized antibody spots, reducing the array surface area without sacrificing spot density. (wikipedia.org)
  • organs
  • The epigenetic clock which measures the age of cells/tissues/organs based on DNA methylation levels is arguably the most accurate genomic biomarker. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using biomarkers from easily assessable biofluids (e.g. blood and urine) is beneficial in evaluating the state of harder-to-reach tissues and organs. (wikipedia.org)
  • To date, five different functions have been ascribed to gap junction protein: Electrical and metabolic coupling between cells Electrical and metabolic exchange through hemichannels Tumor suppressor genes (Cx43, Cx32 and Cx36) Adhesive function independent of conductive gap junction channel (neural migration in neocortex) Role of carboxyl-terminal in signaling cytoplasmic pathways (Cx43) Gap Junctions have been observed in various animal organs and tissues where cells contact each other. (wikipedia.org)
  • mRNA
  • A correlation analysis of the deregulated miRNA and mRNAs identified 13,026 miRNA/mRNA pairs with inversely correlated expression, of which 2844 are potential interactions of miRNA and their predicted mRNA targets. (cancerindex.org)
  • A more sensitive approach to transcript analysis of a gene is quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), which has also seen action in quantifying protease mRNA levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • A drawback that separates it from microarray analysis is its limited scope: a microarray can handle parallel analysis of multiple genes while qRT-PCR must amplify one mRNA for analysis at a time. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this mode, a particular exon may be included in mRNAs under some conditions or in particular tissues, and omitted from the mRNA in others. (wikipedia.org)
  • MMP-27 transcript is detected in almost every tissue, except the brain, with the highest expression found in the liver during mouse development In the adult, MMP-27 mRNA is mostly abundant in anti-IgG/IgM stimulated B lymphocytes, bone and kidney but is present at lower levels in the heart. (wikipedia.org)
  • fluorescence
  • As a full-scale cytogenetic and cytogenomic laboratory, CombiMatrix performs genetic testing utilizing a variety of advanced cytogenomic techniques, including chromosomal microarray analysis, standardized and customized fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and high-resolution karyotyping. (wikipedia.org)
  • Frozen
  • One variation is a Frozen tissue array. (wikipedia.org)
  • Scientists who have been developing antibodies for therapeutic purpose all need their preliminary results from frozen tissues to get approval from FDA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Frozen tissue cores with 2 mm diameter from the regions of interest are removed from frozen tissue OCT blocks at different freezing temperature since each tissue type has their own temperature preference at frozen stage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each frozen tissue array block can be cut into 100-500 sections, which can be subjected to independent tests. (wikipedia.org)
  • transcriptome
  • A recent investigation of the transcriptome from distinct tissue compartments of the menstrual endometrium disclosed specific MMP-27 overexpression in areas of stromal breakdown. (wikipedia.org)
  • Methods
  • There are four major methods for genomic analysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a 2D array on a solid substrate (usually a glass slide or silicon thin-film cell) that assays large amounts of biological material using high-throughput screening miniaturized, multiplexed and parallel processing and detection methods. (wikipedia.org)
  • Kononen
  • In 1998, J. Kononen and collaborators developed the current technique, which uses a novel sampling approach to produce tissues of regular size and shape that can be more densely and precisely arrayed. (wikipedia.org)
  • intraepithelial
  • C and D. Kaplan-Meier analysis of the ratio of infiltrating intraepithelial CD206+/CD68+ cells representing the relative density of CD206+ M2 TAM over the total density of CD68+ intraepithelial infiltrating macrophages. (nih.gov)
  • As seen in Figure 3 and Figure 4A-B, immune infiltration of T cells, B cells and TAM was observed in EOC tissues at various densities in the intraepithelial areas. (nih.gov)
  • therapeutic
  • 0.001), and chemo-radiation response (P = 0.004).In multivariate analysis, API5+ (P = 0.039) and combined API5+/pERK1/2+ (P = 0.032) were independent prognostic factors for overall survival.API5 expression is associated with pERK1/2 in a subset of cervical cancer patients and its expression predicts poor overall survival, supporting that API5 may be a promising novel target for therapeutic interventions. (nih.gov)
  • multivariate
  • In patients with ER-positive tumors, Wnt-5a was an independent positive prognostic marker (HR 0.51 95% CI: 0.33-0.78 p = 0.002) and HER2 a negative prognostic marker (HR 2.84 95% CI: 1.51-5.31, p = 0.001) in a Cox multivariate analysis adjusted for standard prognostic markers and tamoxifen treatment. (nih.gov)
  • In multivariate analysis, API5+ (P = 0.039) and combined API5+/pERK1/2+ (P = 0.032) were independent prognostic factors for overall survival. (nih.gov)
  • electrically
  • With tissue slices, a layer of electrically passive dead cells form around the site of incision due to edema. (wikipedia.org)
  • A chronic electrode implant is an electronic device implanted chronically (for a long period) into the brain or other electrically excitable tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • normal
  • Both of these tools allow comparison of expression patterns between normal and diseased samples and tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • limitations
  • An alternative means of predicting cell-electrode behavior is by modeling the system using a geometry-based finite element analysis in an attempt to circumvent the limitations of oversimplifying the system in a lumped circuit element diagram. (wikipedia.org)
  • cancers
  • Automated tissue imaging analysis can significantly reduce uncertainty in characterizing tumors compared to evaluations done by histologists, or improve the prediction rate of recurrence of some cancers. (wikipedia.org)
  • electrodes
  • These 3-D electrodes penetrate the dead cell layer of the slice tissue, decreasing the distance between live cells and the electrodes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first experiment involving the use of an array of planar electrodes to record from cultured cells was conducted in 1972 by C.A. Thomas, Jr. and his colleagues. (wikipedia.org)
  • The experimental setup used a 2 x 15 array of gold electrodes plated with platinum black, each spaced 100 ┬Ám apart from each other. (wikipedia.org)
  • In principle these systems are susceptible to the same tissue response that causes failure in implanted electrodes, but stimulating interfaces can overcome this problem by increasing signal strength. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is ultimately this tissue response that causes electrodes to fail by encapsulating the electrode itself in a protective layer called a "glial scar," (see 2.2). (wikipedia.org)
  • Damage caused by electrodes in the short term is caused by the insertion into the tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Expression
  • CD83 + DCs were less frequent in NSCLC tissues with high GM3 expression. (beds.ac.uk)
  • The aim of this study was to analyze immunochemically the expression of SNAIL, syndecans 1 and 2 and other EMT markers in a tissue microarray (TMA) of PC samples and PC cell lines. (nih.gov)
  • Sparse information about MMP-27 expression was found in studies of gene expression profiling (micro-array) or in expression pattern analysis of MMP family members during developmental, physiological or pathological processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • For experimental purposes, the expression of one or multiple housekeeping genes is used as a reference point for the analysis of expression levels of other genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • parallel
  • Firstly, drug discovery in the last decades leading up to the 1990s had been limited due to the time and cost of running many chromatographic analyses in parallel on macroscopic equipment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Patient
  • Clinical cancer patient cohorts and corresponding tissue microarray sets have been used to study diagnostic, prognostic and treatment predictive cancer biomarkers in most forms of cancer, including lung, breast, colorectal and renal cell cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a typical application, automated tissue image analysis could be used to measure the aggregate activity of cancer cells in a biopsy of a cancerous tumor taken from a patient. (wikipedia.org)
  • diagnostics
  • ATIS have seven basic processes (sample preparation, image acquisition, image analysis, results reporting, data storage, network communication, and self-system diagnostics) and realization of these functions highly accurate hardware and well-integrated, complex, and expensive software. (wikipedia.org)
  • CombiMatrix Corp. (NASDAQ: CBMX) CombiMatrix is a clinical diagnostic laboratory specializing in pre-implantation genetic screening, miscarriage analysis, prenatal and pediatric diagnostics, offering DNA-based testing for the detection of genetic abnormalities beyond what can be identified through traditional methodologies. (wikipedia.org)
  • acute
  • With acute tissue slices, the connections between the cells within the tissue slices prior to extraction and plating are more or less preserved, while the intercellular connections in dissociated cultures are destroyed prior to plating. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • CD1a + cells (immature DCs) were more frequent in NSCLC tissues as compared to peritumoral lung tissue, while CD83 + cells (mature DCs) were more frequent in peritumoral lung tissue. (beds.ac.uk)
  • samples
  • Automated tissue image analysis is a process by which computer-controlled automatic test equipment is used to evaluate tissue samples, using computations to derive quantitative measurements from an image to avoid subjective errors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Systems for automatically analyzing tissue samples also reduce costs and save time. (wikipedia.org)
  • markers
  • This array contains more than 845,000 SNP markers covering both coding and non-coding human genome sequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • Patterns
  • Once the sample image has been acquired and resident in the computer's random access memory as a large array of 0's and 1's, a programmer knowledgeable in cellular architecture can develop deterministic algorithms applied to the entire memory space to detect cell patterns from previously defined cellular structures and formations known to be significant. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • Image analysis involves complex computer algorithms which identify and characterize cellular color, shape, and quantity of the tissue sample using image pattern recognition technology based on vector quantization. (wikipedia.org)
  • progression
  • Tissue markers, including estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, HER2/neu, Ki67, and COX-2 expression, as well as comprehensive molecular profiling of gene expression have also been evaluated as prognostic indicators of progression, but the results remain controversial ( 3 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • specific
  • They must survive in the circulation to reach a secondary site in which they arrest because of physical size or binding to specific tissues. (aacrjournals.org)
  • An antibody microarray (also known as antibody array) is a specific form of protein microarray. (wikipedia.org)
  • Initial uses of antibody-based array systems included detecting IgGs and specific subclasses, analyzing antigens, screening recombinant antibodies, studying yeast protein kinases, analyzing autoimmune antibodies, and examining protein-protein interactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • surface
  • While 96-well plate-based antibody arrays have high-throughput capability, the small surface area in each well limits the number of antibody spots and thus, the number of analytes detected. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemically derivatized glass slides allow for printing of sub-microliter sized antibody spots, reducing the array surface area without sacrificing spot density. (wikipedia.org)
  • vascular
  • Analysis of the coronary plexus shows that this method does not disrupt coronary vascular development. (jove.com)
  • The implantable sensor for sensing in vivo the level of at least one blood constituent in mammalian vascular tissue having at least one source of radiation from infrared. (google.com.au)
  • The implantable sensor for sensing in vivo the level of at least one blood constituent in mammalian vascular tissue having at least one source of radiation from infrared through visible light, arranged to direct the radiation at the tissue where it is affected by interaction with the tissue, and at least one detector. (google.com.au)
  • genes
  • All QIAGEN Silicon Valley use the Ingenuity Knowledge Base, which contains biological and chemical interactions and functional annotations created from millions of individually modeled relationships between proteins, genes, complexes, cells, tissues, drugs, and diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • detector
  • Lung image formation during CT relies on a physical principle similar to that used for image formation during chest radiography: the X-rays hitting the film or the CT detector depend on tissue absorption, which is linearly correlated to physical tissue density. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 10. A device according to claim 1, wherein the at least one detector is located opposite the source and spaced therefrom by a distance sufficient to receive the tissue between the source and the detector. (google.com.au)
  • at least one optical fiber adapted for conveying radiation between the source and the tissue, or the tissue and the detector. (google.com.au)
  • Bone
  • Volumetric analyses over large areas reveal that spectrally coded HSPC-derived cells can be detected non-invasively in various intact tissues, including the bone marrow (BM), for extensive periods of time following transplantation. (jove.com)
  • cells
  • Imaging using confocal/two-photon hybrid microscopy enables simultaneous high resolution assessment of uniquely marked cells and their progeny in conjunction with structural components of the tissues. (jove.com)
  • As these molecules are vital for life, metabolic reactions either focus on making these molecules during the construction of cells and tissues, or by breaking them down and using them as a source of energy, by their digestion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells, circulating tumor cells (CTCs), or formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) or frozen tissue sections are fixed, then permeabilized to allow target accessibility. (wikipedia.org)
  • large
  • FISH allows the analysis of a large series of archival cases much easier to identify the pinpointed chromosome by creating a probe with an artificial chromosomal foundation that will attract similar chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the eventual analysis, these fragments were put into order by digesting a copy of each fragment into still smaller fragments using sequence-specific endonucleases, measuring the size of each small fragment using size-exclusion chromatography, and using that information to determine where the large fragments overlapped one another. (wikipedia.org)
  • Group
  • One example of this can be seen in the Multielectrode Array Art (MEART) system developed by the Potter Research Group at the Georgia Institute of Technology in collaboration with SymbioticA, The Centre for Excellence in Biological Art, at the University of Western Australia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Data
  • 13. M. Afzali, H. Soltanian-Zadeh , "Comparison of Hierarchical and Sequential Clustering Methods for Analysis of DTI Data of TLE," Presented at and Published in the Proceedings of the 6th Iranian Conference on Machine Vision and Image Processing (MVIP'2010), Isfahan, Iran, Oct. 27-28, 2010. (henryford.com)
  • GeneNetwork is a combined database and open source bioinformatics data analysis software resource for systems genetics. (wikipedia.org)
  • shows
  • It is only then that analysis of the initial test shows that only a non-visible portion of the light spectrum was necessary to kill the creature, which causes Kirk and McCoy to realize that Spock was unnecessarily blinded. (wikipedia.org)
  • input
  • Often, cultured neuronal networks are connected to an input/output device such as a multi-electrode array (MEA), thus allowing two-way communication between the researcher and the network. (wikipedia.org)