normal testis

  • Pathogenic gain-of-function mutations associated with increased paternal age, albeit harmful to embryonic development, are paradoxically enriched in the normal testis. (
  • Evidence from previous studies indicates that these so-called paternal age-effect mutations confer a proliferative advantage to the spermatogonia in which they arise, leading to clonal expansion within the normal testis over time. (
  • In this study, we attempted to identify additional cancer-testis antigens that are frequently expressed in various cancers by evaluating the immunogenicity of proteins identified by RDA to be expressed in cancers and normal testis. (


  • We offer an extensive selection of poly A + RNA from human tissues including ovary, testis, uterus, placenta, and other reproductive tissues. (
  • Cancer-testis antigens are preferentially expressed in various cancers and in some normal tissues including testis, ovary, and placenta. (


  • An 'on/off' switch in a type of cancer which typically occurs in the testes and ovaries called 'malignant germ cell tumours' was identified by Cambridge scientists. (
  • Malignant germ cell tumours arise in sperm- or egg-forming cells and usually occur in the reproductive organs, the testes or ovaries. (


  • Changes of GH-R capacities in rainbow trout testis during spermatogenesis. (

germ cells

  • Loss of genes in protein degradation pathway in cyst cells leads to testis tumor with overproliferated germ cells. (


  • The gonads - ovaries and testes - produce gametes , the haploid sexual reproduction cells made through meiosis, which upon fertilisation complete the chromosome set and start the development of a new human. (
  • Gonads differentiate before birth in humans, into testes or ovaries . (


  • In immature marmoset testes, 69.9% ± 9% of the total germ cell population were labelled for CXCR7, whereas in the adult, 4.7% ± 2.7% were positive for CXCR7. (
  • However, the decrease was less pronounced because 1 g of mature testis tissue provided less protein than 1 g of immature testis tissue. (

undifferentiated Sertoli cells

  • Herein, we summarize the detailed procedures on the isolation of undifferentiated Sertoli cells from 20-day-old rat testes, the culture of these cells as a monolayer on Matrigel-coated bicameral units, the characterization of these cultured cells, and the use of the Sertoli cell epithelium for monitoring the integrity of the Sertoli cell blood-testis barrier. (


  • Torsion occurs when the testis spins, twisting the spermatic cord, causing reduced blood flow and testicular damage. (
  • data not shown) was very low in the smallest testes and was increased dramatically between stages IV and VI (1.2-16.2 pmol/2 gonads), when testicular growth was extremely rapid. (
  • In an attempt to identify GH target cells in the testis, saturation experiments were performed on various populations of isolated testicular cells (Fig. 6). (


  • Identification of additional cancer-testis antigens with frequent expression in various cancers was attempted using representational differential analysis (RDA) and immunogenicity evaluation. (


  • A variety of tumor antigens have been identified, and among these, cancer-testis antigens are promising targets ( 5 - 7 ). (


  • In this thesis, I have used immunohistochemistry to seek evidence for putative clones of cells in the normal adult testis. (
  • Thirty clones showing cancer-testis-like expression based on EST database analysis were evaluated by reverse transcription-PCR. (


  • Prior results showed that AR is expressed in musk glands, suggesting that the testis might regulate musk gland development. (


  • StAR, P450scc and 3β-HSD expression in the Leydig cells of the testis were also higher during this season, as was serum testosterone. (
  • The ontogeny of OCT2 and SSX expression in human testis, from embryonic development to adulthood, identified distinct subpopulations of spermatogonia at different maturation stages. (
  • This work provided the backdrop to the detailed immunohistochemical study of normal adult testis by characterising in serial sections the expression of five spermatogonial markers, MAGEA4, SSX, FGFR3, OCT2 and SAGE1, and a proliferation marker, Ki67. (
  • Developmental expression patterns of chemokines CXCL11, CXCL12 and their receptor CXCR7 in testes of common marmoset and human. (
  • The encoded kinase has a broad expression pattern but is described as testis-specific due to effects on fertility. (
  • Expression analysis of the human testis-specific serine/threonine kinase (TSSK) homologues. (


  • At the protein level, CXCL12 and CXCR7 were localized in the testes of the marmoset (Callitrix jacchus) whereas CXCR7 patterns were determined for various stages in human testes. (


  • The use of an in vitro system based on primary cultures of Sertoli cells isolated from rat testes has greatly facilitated the study of the blood-testis barrier in recent years. (
  • Testosterone as one of the most important functional androgen hormone, which is mainly produced by Leydig cells in testis and binds to the androgen receptor (AR), modulating gene transcription in various cells [ 8 ]. (
  • In the developed testis, Leydig cells (LCs) maintain high levels of P450scc and 3β-HSD and, in response to luteinizing hormone (LH), rapidly synthesize StAR and testosterone [ 15 , 16 ]. (
  • Testes produce millions and billions of precursor sperm cells, only half of which mature into viable sperm cells in a process spanning 2-3 months. (


  • Testis - Mineralization in a male B6C3F1 mouse from a chronic study. (
  • Testis - Mineralization in a male B6C3F1 mouse from a subchronic study. (
  • Testis - Mineralization in a male F344/N rat from a chronic study. (
  • This information is based on the routine use of this system in our laboratory to study the Sertoli cell blood-testis barrier in the past two decades, which should be helpful for investigators in the field. (
  • Our previous study show the testis has seasonal change in muskrat, but the relationship of musk gland and testis is not clear. (


  • The musk glands' seasonal development and musk secretion are regulated by the testes, and testosterone plays an important role in the seasonal development of musk glands. (
  • Prior research has suggested that musk gland development and function might be regulated by androgens [ 2 , 3 ] produced by the testis under the control of the hypothalamus-pituitary-testis system [ 4 , 5 ]. (
  • Here we studied the relationship between the musk glands and the testes in different seasons, to further understand the regulation of the development and function of the former by the latter. (


  • These results suggest that the testes and musk glands co-develop seasonally. (


  • The musk gland, testis and blood samples of musk rats are collected in both breeding and non-breeding seasons. (


  • Cancer-testis antigens are promising targets for cancer immunotherapy. (
  • CRT2 was expressed in elongated spermatids of testis among normal tissues and in various cancer cell lines and tissues. (
  • CRT2 was identified as a new cancer-testis antigen expressed in elongated spermatids of testis and in cancer tissues (particularly melanoma) that is recognized by serum IgG from cancer patients. (


  • In summary, the data presented in this thesis convincingly identify for the first time the previously hypothesised clonal events in the testis using immunohistochemical markers. (