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  • structural
  • Drosophila VAMP-associated protein of 33 kDa A (DVAP-33A) is the structural homologue of hVAPB and regulates synaptic remodeling by affecting the size and number of boutons at neuromuscular junctions. (ed.ac.uk)
  • 2000
  • in our laboratory suggested that, after trains of stimulation, vesicles reacidify with a time constant at most on the order of seconds ( Sankaranarayanan and Ryan, 2000 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • The content of acetylcholine in a vesicle was originally estimated to be 1000-2000 molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • synapse
  • Here, we have used immunogold electron microscopy to examine the subcellular localization of actin and synapsin in the giant synapse in lamprey at different states of synaptic activity. (rupress.org)
  • This dual-functionality is dependent upon synaptic activity such as a depolarizing stimulus arriving at the synapse. (wikipedia.org)
  • endocytic
  • These results taken together point toward an endocytic, rather than an exocytic, role for the VGCC synprint site in vesicle recycling. (jneurosci.org)
  • In addition, actin and synapsin were found colocalized in a dynamic filamentous cytomatrix at the sites of synaptic vesicle recycling, endocytic zones. (rupress.org)
  • Our data suggest that in addition to its known function in clustering of vesicles in the reserve pool, synapsin migrates from the synaptic vesicle cluster and participates in the organization of the actin-rich cytomatrix in the endocytic zone during synaptic activity. (rupress.org)
  • Do different endocytic pathways make different synaptic vesicles? (wikipedia.org)
  • membranes
  • SNAREs can be divided into two categories: vesicle or v-SNAREs, which are incorporated into the membranes of transport vesicles during budding, and target or t-SNAREs, which are associated with nerve terminal membranes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several SNARE proteins are located on both vesicles and target membranes, therefore, a more recent classification scheme takes into account structural features of SNAREs, dividing them into R-SNAREs and Q-SNAREs. (wikipedia.org)
  • SNAP-25 is a component of the trans-SNARE complex, which is proposed to account for the specificity of membrane fusion and to directly execute fusion by forming a tight complex that brings the synaptic vesicle and plasma membranes together. (wikipedia.org)
  • Abstract
  • Whittaker's work demonstrating acetylcholine in vesicle fractions from guinea-pig brain was first published in abstract form in 1960 and then in more detail in 1963 and 1964, and the paper of the de Robertis group demonstrating an enrichment of bound acetylcholine in synaptic vesicle fractions from rat brain appeared in 1963. (wikipedia.org)
  • stimulation
  • We estimate that up to ≈130 vesicles can be released per bouton over ≈10 min of stimulation at 0.2 Hz. (pnas.org)
  • The RRP, which comprises ≈10 vesicles at excitatory hippocampal synapses (≈5% of the total) ( , 1 , , 2 ), is the pool that is immediately available for release, whereas the recycling pool (≈15% of the total) is released with moderate ongoing stimulation ( , 1 , , 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • During 4 h of stimulation at 2/s many new vesicles were formed from the axolemma and the quantity of transmitter secreted was several times greater than the quantity in the initial store. (rupress.org)
  • These results suggest ( a ) that synaptic vesicles fuse with, and re-form from, the membrane of the nerve terminal during and after stimulation and ( b ), that the re-formed vesicles can store and release transmitter. (rupress.org)
  • Maturation of this machinery in the process of synaptic development would improve the fidelity of synaptic transmission during high-frequency stimulation of the presynaptic cell. (rupress.org)
  • Up to 130 vesicles can be released per bouton over a ten-minute period of stimulation at 0.2 Hz. (wikipedia.org)
  • synaptosomes
  • Synaptosomes have been widely used for the in vitro biochemical analysis of presynaptic function and as a test preparation in pharmaceutical industry, providing the basis of thousands of publications on the biochemistry of synaptic transmission. (wikipedia.org)
  • biochemical
  • Apart from acetylcholine, adrenaline and noradrenaline were the first neurotransmitters to be discovered and the first intercellular biochemical signals to be found in intracellular vesicles. (wikipedia.org)
  • fluorescence
  • The amplitudes of surface-quenched SpH fluorescence transients allowed us to estimate the dynamics of the quench-protected, "alkaline pool" of vesicles. (jneurosci.org)
  • synapses
  • In agreement with earlier observations, in synapses at rest, synapsin immunoreactivity was preferentially localized to a portion of the vesicle cluster distal to the active zone. (rupress.org)
  • Based upon a variety of in vivo and in vitro data, these synapsin-actin interactions have been proposed to take place in vesicle clusters of synapses. (rupress.org)
  • structural
  • Drosophila VAMP-associated protein of 33 kDa A (DVAP-33A) is the structural homologue of hVAPB and regulates synaptic remodeling by affecting the size and number of boutons at neuromuscular junctions. (ed.ac.uk)
  • axon
  • Like the Ten-m family, Ten-m3 plays a critical role in regulating connectivity of the nervous system, particularly in axon pathfinding and synaptic organisation in the motor and visual system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, KCl depolarization of the presynaptic axon both confers protease resistance to N-cadherins and disperses them throughout the PSD from their original clustering in synaptic puncta, thus increasing their efficacy for cell adhesion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some synaptic junctions appear along the length of an axon as it extends-these are called en passant ("in passing") synapses and can be in the hundreds or even the thousands along one axon. (wikipedia.org)
  • calcium
  • The rapid removal of calcium prevents it from initiating the post-translational modifications that would further alter synaptic strength. (wikipedia.org)
  • preferentially
  • In agreement with earlier observations, in synapses at rest, synapsin immunoreactivity was preferentially localized to a portion of the vesicle cluster distal to the active zone. (nih.gov)
  • complexes
  • Clathrin coats contain both clathrin (acts as a scaffold) and adaptor complexes that link clathrin to receptors in coated vesicles. (wikipedia.org)
  • specific
  • Finally we will use specific examples to explain how synaptic dysfunction can lead to neurological conditions, such as autism and schizophrenia, and study the experimental approaches and model systems currently being used to design clinical treatments. (ed.ac.uk)
  • release
  • Both synaptic voltage and temporal noise are due to the probability associated with transmitter release. (wikipedia.org)
  • Quantal release results in the inconsistent strength and timing of a response, and this is cause for synaptic voltage noise. (wikipedia.org)
  • leads
  • Coherently and logically present (written and oral) an argument explaining how synaptic dysfunction leads to disease. (ed.ac.uk)
  • helps
  • This is an adaptor protein which helps the formation of a clathrin coat around a vesicle. (wikipedia.org)
  • This morphological change helps to prevent further synaptic modifications that could jeopardize the information held by the already existing synaptic connections. (wikipedia.org)
  • causes
  • Although homosynaptic and heterosynaptic depression can lead to long-term depression and/or potentiation, this particular case is a short-term example of how homosynaptic depression causes synaptic fatigue. (wikipedia.org)
  • The following sections give explanations about the causes of synaptic noise. (wikipedia.org)
  • These two factors are additional causes of synaptic noise. (wikipedia.org)
  • brain
  • The significance of synaptic noise has become clear through ongoing research of the brain, specifically the hippocampus. (wikipedia.org)