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  • receptors
  • We also show that these homomeric and heteromeric receptors are less efficiently expressed at the synapse. (garvan.org.au)
  • NMDA receptor-dependent long-term potentiation (LTP) is a mechanism by which specific synaptic connections are strengthened between two cells by trafficking of AMPA-type glutamate receptors to the synapse ( Malinow and Malenka, 2002 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • formation
  • Synapse formation involves the orchestrated movement of microclusters toward the center of the contact area with the antigen-presenting cell. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Thus, T cell antigen receptor signaling and the subsequent formation of immunological synapses are active processes dependent on myosin IIA. (ox.ac.uk)
  • signals
  • The main advantage of an electrical synapse is the rapid transfer of signals from one cell to the next. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inspired by the physicality of synapses in the brain, which permit signals between cells, allowing data and information to surge through the body, the artists set out to mimic this communication process outside the body, between users and their environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • occur
  • Further updates about this project will occur only with the IBM synapse effort and the TrueNorth cognitive computer chip, since this effort continued with them. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tripartite synapses occur at a number of locations in the central nervous system with astrocytes and may also exist with Muller glia of retinal ganglion cells and Schwann cells at the neuromuscular junction. (wikipedia.org)
  • The study of dendrodendritic synapses in the olfactory bulb provided some early examples of ideas about neuronal organization relating to dendritic spines One spine could serve as an input-output unit One neuron could contain multiple dendritic spines These spines are widely spaced, indicating some independent function Synaptic input-output events can occur without axonal stimulation Dendrodendritic synapses have been found and studied in both the olfactory bulb and the retina. (wikipedia.org)
  • nervous system
  • This article is about synapses of the nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first electrical synapse was discovered in a crayfish nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Electrical synapses are present throughout the central nervous system and have been studied specifically in the neocortex, hippocampus, thalamic reticular nucleus, locus coeruleus, inferior olivary nucleus, mesencephalic nucleus of the trigeminal nerve, olfactory bulb, retina, and spinal cord of vertebrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • neurotransmission
  • These unique features specialize the ribbon synapse to enable extremely fast, precise and sustained neurotransmission, which is critical for the perception of complex senses such as vision and hearing. (wikipedia.org)
  • axonal
  • Astrocytes are capable of responding selectively to stimuli: Astrocytes of the hippocampal stratum oriens form tripartite synapses with axonal projections from the alveus. (wikipedia.org)
  • electrical
  • The electrical depolarization of the membrane at the synapse causes channels to open that are permeable to calcium ions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Electrical synapses are often found in neural systems that require the fastest possible response, such as defensive reflexes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Long-term changes can be seen in electrical synapses. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, changes in electrical synapses in the retina are seen during light and dark adaptations of the retina. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of the speed of transmission, electrical synapses are found in escape mechanisms and other processes that require quick responses, such as the response to danger of the sea hare Aplysia, which quickly releases large quantities of ink to obscure enemies' vision. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is also evidence for "plasticity" at some of these synapses-that is, that the electrical connection they establish can strengthen or weaken as a result of activity, or during changes in the intracellular concentration of magnesium. (wikipedia.org)
  • exocytosis
  • Ribbon synapses undergo a cycle of exocytosis and endocytosis in response to graded changes of membrane potential. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been proposed that most ribbon synapses undergo a special type of exocytosis based on coordinated multivesicular release. (wikipedia.org)
  • This interpretation has recently been questioned at the inner hair cell ribbon synapse, where it has been instead proposed that exocytosis is described by uniquantal (i.e., univesicular) release shaped by a flickering vesicle fusion pore. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • Immunological and neural synapses share properties such as the synaptic cleft, adhesion molecules, stability, and polarity. (jci.org)
  • E ) Neural synapses are stabilized by adhesion molecules and can recruit receptor tyrosine kinases. (jci.org)
  • Key molecules in the synapse are the T cell receptor and its counterpart the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). (wikipedia.org)
  • neural
  • A better understanding of the shared mechanisms between immunological and neural synapses could aid in the development of new therapeutic modalities for immunological, neurological, and neuroimmunological disorders alike. (jci.org)
  • Role of submicron receptor complexes in immunological and neural synapses. (jci.org)
  • F ) Microgaph of a neural synapse. (jci.org)
  • The SyNAPSE team for HRL is led by Narayan Srinivasa, manager of HRL's Center for Neural and Emergent Systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • biological
  • SyNAPSE is a DARPA program that aims to develop electronic neuromorphic machine technology that scales to biological levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • undergo
  • Autosomes undergo synapsis during meiosis, and are held together by a protein complex along the whole length of the chromosomes called the synaptonemal complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • occurs
  • Synapsis (also called syndesis) is the pairing of two homologous chromosomes that occurs during meiosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Following synapsis, a type of recombination referred to as synthesis dependent strand annealing (SDSA) occurs frequently. (wikipedia.org)
  • In female Drosophila melanogaster fruit flies, meiotic chromosome synapsis occurs in the absence of recombination. (wikipedia.org)
  • membranes
  • Synapses are generally too small to be recognizable using a light microscope except as points where the membranes of two cells appear to touch, but their cellular elements can be visualized clearly using an electron microscope. (wikipedia.org)
  • Brain
  • As the brain matures, the relative number of silent synapses decreases. (wikipedia.org)
  • The adult human brain is estimated to contain from 1014 to 5 × 1014 (100-500 trillion) synapses. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Synapse catalog ranges from European horror touchstones like Vampyros Lesbos, and Castle of Blood, to important genre documentaries including Roy Frumkes' Document of the Dead, from drive-in favorites like The Brain That Wouldn't Die to Leni Riefenstahl's Nazi film Triumph of the Will. (wikipedia.org)
  • however
  • However, the interest and scope of the whole subject of synapses stimulated me to write a much more comprehensive and extensive account. (springer.com)
  • New investigations, however, have shown that a "bull's eye" is not present in all immunological synapses. (wikipedia.org)
  • During this time they began recording material for an EP, and they began to discuss plans to tour Europe with Phoenix Bodies, however due to an intense incident involving Travis Chance, the band (along with Fax Arcana, a side project that included members of Usurp Synapse) were dropped from the label, eventually causing both groups to disband. (wikipedia.org)
  • Citation
  • Synapse was developing a series of applications: SynFile+ (written in Forth by Steve Ahlstrom and Dan Moore of The 4th Works[citation needed]), SynCalc, SynChron, SynComm, SynStock, and SynTrend. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] In 2016, film critic and author Maitland McDonagh was nominated for a Rondo Hatton Classic Horror Award for Best Commentary for her work on Synapse Films' DVD release of Dario Argento's film Tenebrae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Greek
  • The word "synapse" - from the Greek synapsis ( συνάψις ), meaning "conjunction", in turn from συνάπτεὶν ( συν ("together") and ἅπτειν ("to fasten")) - was introduced in 1897 by the English neurophysiologist Charles Sherrington in Michael Foster 's Textbook of Physiology . (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus
  • Thus synapsis in Drosophila is independent of meiotic recombination, consistent with the view that synapsis is a precondition required for the initiation of meiotic recombination. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, silence may be a state that synapses can visit many times during their lifetimes. (wikipedia.org)
  • receives
  • Synapse receives universally negative reviews from customers on websites such as Yelp and Better Business Bureau, and has been criticized for their unethical business practices by several reputable publications, including the New York Times. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • Contrary to previous assumptions, dopamine helps both strengthen and weaken synapses made by cortical cells onto cells of the subcortical striatum. (sciencemag.org)
  • These granule cells form dendrodendritic synapses with mitral cells to convey odor information from the olfactory bulb. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, synapse formation is quick in CD8+ T cells, because for CD8+ T cells it is fundamental to eliminate the pathogen quickly. (wikipedia.org)
  • In CD8+ T cells, the synapse formation leads to killing of the target cell via secretion of cytolytic enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • dendritic
  • These include but are not limited to axo-axonic, dendro-dendritic , axo-secretory, somato-dendritic, dendro-somatic, and somato-somatic synapses. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, different patterns appear in the synapse between a T-cell and a dendritic cell. (wikipedia.org)