• addictive
  • The higher the frequency with which a test animal emits the operant behavior, the more rewarding (and addictive), the test substance is considered. (wikipedia.org)
  • As far back as the mid-20th century, researchers have investigated animals' drive to consume drugs of abuse in order to better understand human addictive processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • As with all GABAergic drugs barbiturate withdrawal produces potentially fatal effects such as seizures in a manner reminiscent of delirium tremens and benzodiazepine withdrawal although its more direct mechanism of GABA agonism makes barbiturate withdrawal more severe than that of alcohol or benzodiazepines (subsequently making it one of the most dangerous withdrawals of any known addictive substance). (wikipedia.org)
  • significant
  • Illicitly produced desomorphine is typically far from pure and often contains large amounts of toxic substances as a result of being "cooked" and used without any significant effort to remove the byproducts and leftovers from synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • orally
  • In contrast to intravenous methotrexate for cancer patients, leukoencephalopathy induced by orally taken methotrexate may be associated with cognitive dysfunction and even death. (wikipedia.org)
  • toxins
  • Toxic leukoencephalopathy or toxic spongiform leukoencephalopathy is a rare condition that is characterized by progressive damage (-pathy) to white matter (-leuko-) in the brain (-encephalo-), particularly myelin, due to causes such as exposure to drugs of abuse, environmental toxins, or chemotherapeutic drugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, toxic leukoencephalopathy induced by drug abuse or environmental toxins have had more damaging side effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • toxic
  • Causes of this damage are from iodine and phosphorus (and other toxic substances) that are present after synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The frequent occurrence of tissue damage and infection among illicit users are what gained the drug its nickname of the flesh-eating drug,or the zombie drug as homemade versions made under inadequate conditions contain multiple impurities and toxic substances that lead to severe tissue damage and subsequent infection as a direct consequence of use. (wikipedia.org)
  • processes
  • These impurities may result from poor manufacturing processes or because the drug was purposely adulterated or "cut" with other substances. (nef2.com)
  • focuses
  • Subjects will be enrolled from a mature research venue in Chennai, YR Gaitonde Centre for Substance Abuse-related Research (YRGCSAR), which focuses the epidemiology and natural history of HIV in DUs. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • drugs of ab
  • In 1969, Deneau, Yanagita and Seevers provided macaque monkeys free access to a variety of drugs of abuse for investigating whether nonhuman primates would voluntarily initiate self-administration of these substances. (wikipedia.org)
  • frequently
  • Most frequently, studies were performed in nonhuman primates to identify abuse potential, as required by the drug development process. (wikipedia.org)
  • physical
  • The first research question asked whether physical abuse victimization at the hands of parents/guardians, bullying victimization at the hands. (bioportfolio.com)
  • A.) Medically Dependent, with respect to an individual, has been certified by a physician attesting routine use of appropriate medical services including home intravenous drug therapy to prevent the individual's deterioration of physical health or cognitive function due to infection from the etiologic agent of the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • products
  • The manager of a Fiesta Mart supermarket in northwest Dallas explained his store's policy shift regarding various diphenhydramine-containing products by saying local youths were stealing these items, adding, "We didn't want to be part of the problem or anybody dying," implying that the store also pulled the products to curb abuse. (wikipedia.org)
  • Medical
  • We developed and implemented the Substance Abuse Research Education and Training (SARET) program for medical, dental, nursing, and social work students to address the dearth of health professionals pu. (bioportfolio.com)
  • health
  • Evaluation of the Substance Abuse Research and Education Training (SARET) program: Stimulating health professional students to pursue careers in substance use research. (bioportfolio.com)
  • This conceptualization moves away from the ill-defined binary antonyms of "use" vs. "abuse" (see diagram, lower right) towards a more nuanced, public health-based understanding of substance use. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the United States, there are three distinct prohibitions on needle exchange programs at the federal level-the Ryan White CARE Act, the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) authorization, and the 1997 Labor-Health and Human Services (HHS) Education appropriations legislation. (wikipedia.org)
  • potential
  • Its intermediate duration of action gives butabarbital an abuse potential slightly lower than secobarbital. (wikipedia.org)
  • If animals self-administered at a rate significantly greater than vehicle, the drug was considered an active reinforcer with abuse potential. (wikipedia.org)