• kinase
  • AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), for instance is an energy sensor in the cell and is activated upon increases in the AMP/ATP ratio. (nih.gov)
  • AMPK is directly activated by phosphorylation carried out by upstream kinases: Calmodulin-dependent kinase kinase β (CamKK), transforming growth factor-activated kinase-1 (TAK1), or by tumor suppressor liver kinase β-1 (LKB1) . (nih.gov)
  • However, acetylation of LKB1 at specific lysine residues (K48) regulates kinase activity and the activity of its protein substrates. (nih.gov)
  • 5' AMP-activated protein kinase or AMPK or 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase is an enzyme (EC 2.7.11.31) that plays a role in cellular energy homeostasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • It should not be confused with cyclic AMP-activated protein kinase (protein kinase A). AMPK is a heterotrimeric protein complex that is formed by α, β, and γ subunits. (wikipedia.org)
  • fatty
  • Cells were incubated with 1mM taurocholate with or without 250 μ M 18:0, 18:1, 18:2, 20:4, 20:5 or 22:6 fatty acids. (biochemj.org)
  • Subsequently, AMPK activity inhibited acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and fatty acid synthase (FAS) and thus limits the generation of fatty acids (Figure 1). (nih.gov)
  • The expression of other classes is stable during pregnancy, possibly representing expression in both the adipose and epithelial compartment and increases two- to three-fold (fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis) or decreases about two-fold (fatty acid and protein degradation) at parturition. (nih.gov)
  • Fatty acid synthase is a multi-enzyme protein that catalyzes fatty acid synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The growing fatty acid chain is carried between these active sites while attached covalently to the phosphopantetheine prosthetic group of an acyl carrier protein (ACP), and is released by the action of a thioesterase (TE) upon reaching a carbon chain length of 16 (palmitic acid). (wikipedia.org)
  • When AMPK phosphorylates acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (ACC1) or sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP1c), it inhibits synthesis of fatty acids, cholesterol, and triglycerides, and activates fatty acid uptake and β-oxidation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a peroxisomal thioesterase that appears to be involved more in the oxidation of fatty acids rather than in their formation. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathway
  • The enzyme carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1) catalyzes the rate-controlling step in the overall mitochondrial FA β-oxidation pathway. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • This gene encodes a member of the subtilisin-like proprotein convertase family, which includes proteases that process protein and peptide precursors trafficking through regulated or constitutive branches of the secretory pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • site-1 protea
  • Membrane-bound transcription factor site-1 protease Brown MS, Goldstein JL (1999). (wikipedia.org)
  • Membrane-bound transcription factor site-1 protease, or site-1 protease (S1P) for short, also known as subtilisin/kexin-isozyme 1 (SKI-1), is an enzyme (EC 3.4.21.112) that in humans is encoded by the MBTPS1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • site-1 protease at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, which is in the public domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • These cleavages are carried out by two distinct proteases, called site-1 protease (S1P) and site-2 protease (S2P). (wikipedia.org)
  • 2002
  • The MEROPS online database for peptidases and their inhibitors: AEBSF A Link to the ABRF group usegroup archive with an informative discussion of covalent modifications to proteins resulting from use of AEBSF: [1][permanent dead link] Powers JC, Asgian JL, Ekici OD, James KE (2002). (wikipedia.org)
  • enzyme
  • Two Mg2+ are coordinated by the phosphate groups on the ATP, and are required for ATP binding to the enzyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • It consists of three proteins (subunits) that together make a functional enzyme, conserved from yeast to humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • mice
  • Increased PKA activity in response to adrenergic stimulation results in a lean phenotype and improved insulin sensitivity in mice in which the PKA-regulatory type II β-subunit is ablated ( 12 , 34 ). (physiology.org)
  • transmembrane
  • All members of this family share five highly conserved structural domains: an extracellular N-terminal ligand-binding domain with cysteine-rich repeats (also called ligand-binding repeats), an epidermal growth factor (EGF), an O-linked glycosylation sugar domain, a single transmembrane sequence, and a cytoplasmic domain which contains an NPxY sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • cysteine
  • The conventional model for organization of FAS (see the 'head-to-tail' model on the right) is largely based on the observations that the bifunctional reagent 1,3-dibromopropanone (DBP) is able to crosslink the active site cysteine thiol of the KS domain in one FAS monomer with the phosphopantetheine prosthetic group of the ACP domain in the other monomer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mimicking this general structure, VLDLR has eight, 40 amino acid long cysteine-rich repeats in its extracellular N-terminal ligand-binding domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • This extra exon in the VLDLR gene accounts for the extra cysteine-binding repeat not found in LDLR. (wikipedia.org)
  • The modular structures of these two proteins are almost superimposable, with the only difference being the additional cysteine-rich repeat in VLDLR. (wikipedia.org)
  • These ligands attach to the cysteine binding repeats in the N-terminus end. (wikipedia.org)
  • glucose
  • AMPK stimulates glucose uptake in skeletal muscle by phosphorylating Rab-GTPase-activating protein TBC1D1, which ultimately induces fusion of GLUT4 vesicles with the plasma membrane. (wikipedia.org)