• phonemes
  • The problems were that (1) speech is extended in time, (2) the sounds of speech (phonemes) overlap with each other, (3) the articulation of a speech sound is affected by the sounds that come before and after it, and (4) there is natural variability in speech (e.g. foreign accent) as well as noise in the environment (e.g. busy restaurant). (wikipedia.org)
  • Specific allophonic variations, and the particular correspondences between allophones (realizations of speech sound) and phonemes (underlying perceptions of speech sound) can vary even within languages. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pathology
  • Hence, it is studied by researchers from a variety of different backgrounds, such as psychology, cognitive science, linguistics, and speech and language pathology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hanson's interest in supporting disabled populations began at the University of Colorado where she focused on communication disorders, majoring in psychology along with speech pathology and audiology. (wikipedia.org)
  • contrasts
  • The purpose of the present study was twofold: 1) to compare the hierarchy of perceived and produced significant speech pattern contrasts in children with cochlear implants, and 2) to compare this hierarchy to developmental data of children with normal hearing. (mendeley.com)
  • vowels
  • As they are 6 months old, they are introduced to statistical learning (distributional frequencies) and they have preference to language-specific perception for vowels. (wikiversity.org)
  • and 5) the hierarchy in speech pattern contrast perception and production was similar between the implanted and the normal-hearing children, with the exception of the vowels (possibly because of the interaction between the specific information provided by the implant device and the acoustics of the Hebrew language). (mendeley.com)
  • processes
  • Martin, The answers to your questions can be found in the realm of neurolinguistics, this being the study of how the brain processes sound, in particular, speech and complex waveforms. (bio.net)
  • This speech information can then be used for higher-level language processes, such as word recognition. (wikipedia.org)
  • Objective measures such as event-related potentials (ERPs) are crucial to understanding the processes underlying a facilitation of auditory-visual speech perception. (illinois.edu)
  • These simulations are predictions about how a human mind/brain processes speech sounds and words as they are heard in real time. (wikipedia.org)
  • synthesis
  • Speech analysis, synthesis, and perception (2nd ed. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the speech processing community moved towards black box models for recognition and synthesis, Jacqueline Vaissiere left the Centre National d'études des Télécommunications and chose to become a professor at the Sorbonne Nouvelle, where she succeeded René Gsell in 1990. (wikipedia.org)
  • One focus of his current research is on the development and theoretical and applied use of a completely synthetic and animated head (iBaldi) for speech synthesis, language tutoring, and edutainment. (wikipedia.org)
  • allophones
  • It is important not to mistake allophones, which are different manifestations of the same phoneme in speech, with allomorphs, which are morphemes that may sound different in different contexts. (wikipedia.org)
  • discriminate
  • Developmentalists therefore make inferences about how preverbal children learn to discriminate speech sounds that they heard in their environments. (wikiversity.org)
  • Organization
  • Here, it is proposed that the earliest developing sensory system - likely somatosensory in the case of speech, including somatosensory feedback from oral-motor movements that are first manifest in the fetus, provides an organization on which auditory speech can build once the peripheral auditory system comes on-line by 22 weeks gestation. (grantome.com)
  • language
  • Subtitles in one's native language, the default in some European countries, are harmful to learning to understand foreign speech. (innovations-report.com)
  • Since foreign subtitles seem to help with adaptation to foreign speech in adults, they should perhaps also be used whenever available (e.g., on a DVD) to boost listening skills during second-language learning. (innovations-report.com)
  • At 9 months old, they recognize language specific sound combinations and by 10 months, they produce language specific speech production. (wikiversity.org)
  • Although most children begin producing language, some still cannot produce speech sounds when they are just turning one year old. (wikiversity.org)
  • Speech perception is the process by which the sounds of language are heard, interpreted and understood. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reliable constant relations between a phoneme of a language and its acoustic manifestation in speech are difficult to find. (wikipedia.org)
  • In W. Strange (Ed.), Speech perception and linguistic experience: Issues in cross-language research (pp. 49-89). (springer.com)
  • There are increasing reports that individual variation in behavioral and neurophysiological measures of infant speech processing predicts later language outcomes, and specifically concurrent or subsequent vocabulary size. (mpi.nl)
  • Neuropsychologists have used this test to explore the role of singular neuroanatomical structures in speech perception and language asymmetry. (wikipedia.org)
  • In B. Butterworth (Ed.), Language Production, Vol. I: Speech and Talk (pp. 373-420). (wikipedia.org)
  • Computer, Speech and language. (wikipedia.org)
  • Language by ear and by eye: The relationships between speech and reading. (wikipedia.org)
  • Language and Speech, 9, 1-13. (wikipedia.org)
  • spoken
  • The McGurk effect shows that seeing the production of a spoken syllable that differs from an auditory cue synchronized with it affects the perception of the auditory one. (wikipedia.org)
  • If an ambiguous speech sound is spoken that is exactly in between /t/ and /d/, the hearer may have difficulty deciding what it is. (wikipedia.org)
  • unfamiliar speech
  • In contrast, the Dutch subtitles did not provide this teaching function, and, because they told the viewer what the characters in the film meant to say, the Dutch subtitles may have drawn the students' attention away from the unfamiliar speech. (innovations-report.com)
  • ambiguous
  • Each of these causes the speech signal to be complex and often ambiguous, making it difficult for the human mind/brain to decide what words it is really hearing. (wikipedia.org)
  • articulations
  • Though the idea of a module has been qualified in more recent versions of the theory, the idea remains that the role of the speech motor system is not only to produce speech articulations but also to detect them. (wikipedia.org)
  • hypothesis
  • The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis by investigating oscillatory dynamics from ongoing EEG recordings whilst participants passively viewed ecologically realistic face-speech interactions in film. (diva-portal.org)
  • The hypothesis has gained more interest outside the field of speech perception than inside. (wikipedia.org)
  • evidence
  • 2013). This finding provides evidence that the auditory and motor cortex interact during speech processing. (ox.ac.uk)
  • This data provides further evidence for sensorimotor processing of visual signals that are used in speech communication. (ox.ac.uk)
  • place of articulat
  • Using a speech synthesizer, speech sounds can be varied in place of articulation along a continuum from /bɑ/ to /dɑ/ to /ɡɑ/, or in voice onset time on a continuum from /dɑ/ to /tɑ/ (for example). (wikipedia.org)
  • sounds
  • While 3 months, they can produce non-speech and vowel-like sounds. (wikiversity.org)
  • Our recent study showed that TMS-induced disruption of the articulatory motor cortex suppresses automatic EEG responses to changes in speech sounds, but not to changes in piano tones (Möttönen et al. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Auditory-motor processing of speech sounds. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Our thesis, then, is that while multisensory speech perception has a developmental history (and hence is not akin to an 'innate'starting point), the multisensory sensitivities should be in place without specific experience of specific speech sounds. (grantome.com)
  • Thus multisensory processing should be as evident for non-native, never-before-experienced speech sounds, as it is for native and hence familiar ones. (grantome.com)
  • Vestibular sensitivity to ultrasonic sounds has also been hypothesised to be involved in the perception of speech presented at artificially high frequencies, above the range of the human cochlea (~18 kHz). (wikipedia.org)
  • sound
  • The process of perceiving speech begins at the level of the sound signal and the process of audition. (wikipedia.org)
  • If one could identify stretches of the acoustic waveform that correspond to units of perception, then the path from sound to meaning would be clear. (wikipedia.org)
  • A speech sound is influenced by the ones that precede and the ones that follow. (wikipedia.org)
  • Participants made temporal order judgments (TOJs) regarding whether the speech-sound or the visual-speech gesture occurred first, for video clips presented at various different stimulus onset asynchronies. (ox.ac.uk)
  • It is proposed that if speech perception is multisensory without specific experience, the addition of matching visual, tactile, or motor information should facilitate discrimination of a non-native speech sound contrast at 10-months, while the addition of mismatching information should disrupt discrimination at 6-months. (grantome.com)
  • sensory
  • Results indicated that cross-communications between the frontal lobes, intraparietal associative areas and primary auditory and occipital cortices are specifically enhanced during natural face-speech perception and that phase synchronisation mediates the functional exchange of information associated with face-speech processing between both sensory and associative regions in both hemispheres. (diva-portal.org)
  • temporal
  • TRACE simulates this process by representing the temporal dimension of speech, allowing words in the lexicon to vary in activation strength, and by having words compete during processing. (wikipedia.org)
  • continuous
  • The continuous (adapting) speech stream could either be presented in synchrony, or else with the auditory stream lagging by 300 ms. A significant shift (13 ms in the direction of the adapting stimulus in the point of subjective simultaneity) was observed in the TOJ task when participants monitored the asynchronous speech stream. (ox.ac.uk)