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  • NKCC2
  • As urine moves towards the more superficial portion of the thick ascending limb, NKCC2 is the major transport protein by which sodium is reabsorbed from the urine. (wikipedia.org)
  • transporters
  • As long as NKCC1 transporters are predominantely active, internal chloride concentrations in neurons is raised in comparison with mature chloride concentrations, which is important for GABA and glycine responses, as respective ligand-gated anion channels are permeable to chloride. (wikipedia.org)
  • depletion
  • Nevertheless, they can be associated with low sodium levels, volume depletion, and low blood pressure, among other adverse effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • extracellular
  • Amino acids and sugars are taken up from sea water in the presence of extracellular sodium and is driven by the NA+/K+-ATPase pump. (wikipedia.org)
  • urine
  • Whether this sub-classification helps us to identify the genes and mutations responsible, since these are to expected to be in the so-called sodium channels (i.e. salt pumps)which the kidneys use to prevent salt being excreted in the urine. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Here, the urine has a relatively high concentration of sodium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bicarbonate
  • Several crystal structures are available for members of the SulP family through RCSB: PDB: 4DGF​, 4DGH​, 3LLO​, 2KLN​ One of the distant SulP homologues has been shown to be a bicarbonate:Na+ symporter (TC# 2.A.53.5.1). (wikipedia.org)
  • binds
  • The Serotonin Transporter first binds a sodium ion, followed by the Serotonin, and then a chloride ion, thus it is allowed, thanks to the membrane potential, to flip inside the cell freeing all the elements previously bound. (wikipedia.org)
  • Modulators
  • Other NCC modulators, including intracellular chloride depletion, angiotensin II, aldosterone and vasopressin, can regulate NCC activity by phosphorylating conserved serine/threonine residues. (wikipedia.org)
  • tubule
  • Frequent urination is due to the increased loss of water that has not been retained from the body as a result of a concomitant relationship with sodium loss from the convoluted tubule. (wikipedia.org)
  • transporters
  • Deletion of SLC26A3 results in chloride-rich diarrhea and is associated with compensatory adaptive up-regulation of ion-absorbing transporters. (wikipedia.org)
  • In mammals, glucose is transported through sodium dependent glucose transporters, which use energy in this process. (wikipedia.org)
  • gradient
  • These studies have also shown that transport rate and direction is totally dependent on the sodium gradient. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of the tight coupling of the membrane potential and the sodium gradient, activity-induced changes in membrane polarity can dramatically influence transport rates. (wikipedia.org)
  • glucose
  • Here, since both glucose and sodium are transported in the same direction across the membrane, they would be classified as symporters. (wikipedia.org)
  • His experience in the areas of glucose-6-phosphate biochemistry, carbon dioxide fixation, hexokinase and phosphate studies led him to hypothesize cotransport of glucose along with sodium through the intestine. (wikipedia.org)