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  • genomic
  • Excision of gene coding sequences from genomic DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • In commonly used RNA isolation methods, the absence of genomic DNA is still a challenge. (roche.com)
  • Particularly for downstream quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR, co-amplified genomic DNA can lead to nonspecific results. (roche.com)
  • Different techniques have been used to monitor contamination of RNA by genomic DNA. (roche.com)
  • Nevertheless, in sensitive downstream applications like qRT-PCR, genomic DNA traces, not detectable by the above methods, can also produce nonspecific results. (roche.com)
  • This is because both reverse transcribed mRNA (cDNA), as well as the contaminating genomic DNA, can serve as template for the subsequent PCR amplification. (roche.com)
  • This primer design strategy includes one or more intronic sequence motifs in the genomic DNA shifting the amplification efficiency of the PCR reaction toward the cDNA template. (roche.com)
  • PCR fragments amplified in this control reaction indicate contaminating genomic DNA. (roche.com)
  • The PCR fragments in lanes 5 and 6 indicated by arrows, are of higher molecular weight based on the included intron sequence, and therefore indicative of contamination of the RNA template with genomic DNA. (roche.com)
  • For removal of genomic DNA from RNA samples, a DNase I treatment is recommended. (roche.com)
  • In cases of very high levels of endogenous genomic DNA, treatment with DNase I during the isolation process can still leave residual contaminating DNA in the isolated RNA. (roche.com)
  • Results show that XPG partners with BRCA1 and BRCA2 to maintain genomic stability through homologous recombination, and its loss causes DNA breaks, chromosome aberrations, and replication fork stalling. (nih.gov)
  • At optimal temperatures (37-42 °C), the reaction progresses rapidly and results in specific DNA amplification from just a few target copies to detectable levels, typically within 10 minutes, for rapid detection of viral genomic DNA or RNA, pathogenic bacterial genomic DNA, as well as short length aptamer DNA. (wikipedia.org)

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  • residues
  • Neutralization of these positively charged residues within the non-target strand groove of SpCas9 weakened non-target binding and encouraged on-target binding which requires more stringent Watson-Crick base pairing. (genscript.com)
  • Differences in the orientation and specific residues in the TPR between SMG6 and its homologs may account for why SMG6 does not form a complex with SMG5 and SMG7 when recruited by UPF1. (wikipedia.org)
  • This results in significant deformation of the DNA tertiary structure and is accomplished with a surfaces rich in basic (positively charged) residues. (wikipedia.org)
  • cDNA
  • The cDNA clone is shipped in a 2-D bar-coded Matrix tube as dried plasmid DNA. (origene.com)
  • If a reverse transcriptase that works at 37-42 °C is added then RNA can be reverse transcribed and the cDNA produced amplified all in one step. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • This gene encodes a single-strand specific DNA endonuclease that makes the 3' incision in DNA excision repair following UV-induced damage. (genecards.org)
  • This database is built by NCBI, and, provides only a single record for each gene/transcript. (origene.com)
  • Gene transcription is by the host's cellular machinery each gene having a specific promoter. (wikipedia.org)
  • GO annotations related to this gene include magnesium ion binding and single-stranded RNA binding . (genecards.org)
  • Each subunit is encoded by a separate gene: Both the RecD and RecB subunits are helicases, i.e., energy-dependent molecular motors that unwind DNA (or RNA in the case of other proteins). (wikipedia.org)
  • Interestingly, GAPDH is encoded by a single gene that produces a single mRNA transcript with no known splice variants, though an isoform does exist as a separate gene that is expressed only in spermatozoa. (wikipedia.org)
  • eukaryotic
  • In molecular biology, enzymes in the DNA/RNA non-specific endonuclease family of bacterial and eukaryotic endonucleases EC 3.1.30. (wikipedia.org)
  • We discuss how human genetic studies as well as several investigations on mammalian models and simpler eukaryotic organisms have contributed to a better understanding of the involvement of DNA repair mechanisms in aging. (hindawi.com)
  • This paper explores some of the recent research, which has been performed in order to uncover the relationship between DNA damage, DNA repair mechanisms, and the aging process, and emphasis is given to the use of eukaryotic model systems for this area of research. (hindawi.com)
  • replication
  • Recently, RNase H(35), the Saccharomyces cerevisiae homologue of mammalian RNase HI, was identified and its possible role in DNA replication was proposed (P. Frank, C. Braunshofer-Reiter, and U. Wintersberger, FEBS Lett. (asm.org)
  • Replication of double-stranded DNA is an asymmetric process. (asm.org)
  • Moreover, evidence from the bovine system suggests that the activity of the large RNase HI correlates with DNA replication whereas that of the small RNase HII correlates with transcription ( 7 ). (asm.org)
  • Some of this RNA is translated and the remainder is used to initiate DNA replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since then, it has been shown to be used by different enzymes in many biological processes such as DNA methylation, various DNA repair mechanisms, and DNA replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, studies have shown that DNA base flipping is used by many different enzymes in a variety biological processes such as DNA methylation, various DNA repair mechanisms, RNA transcription and DNA replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA replication and RNA transcription both make use of base flipping. (wikipedia.org)
  • degradation
  • All organisms studied contain many RNases of two different classes, showing that RNA degradation is a very ancient and important process. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, active RNA degradation systems are a first defense against RNA viruses, and provide the underlying machinery for more advanced cellular immune strategies such as RNAi. (wikipedia.org)
  • RI is used in most laboratories that study RNA to protect their samples against degradation from environmental RNases. (wikipedia.org)
  • mismatches
  • however most are nonspecific, instead recognizing structural abnormalities produced in the DNA backbone by base pair mismatches. (wikipedia.org)
  • oxidative
  • Another very prominent type of endogenous DNA damage, oxidative DNA damage, is caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are formed continuously as a consequence of normal aerobic metabolism during mitochondrial respiration but also by inflammatory responses. (hindawi.com)
  • archaea
  • Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated (Cas) systems provide bacteria and archaea with adaptive immunity against viruses and plasmids by using CRISPR RNAs (crRNAs) to guide the silencing of invading nucleic acids. (sciencemag.org)
  • Bacteria and archaea have evolved RNA-mediated adaptive defense systems called clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated (Cas) that protect organisms from invading viruses and plasmids ( 1 - 3 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • molecule
  • One of these enzymes added a methyl group to the DNA, generating methylated DNA, while the other cleaved unmethylated DNA at a wide variety of locations along the length of the molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • A restriction endonucleases functions by "scanning" the length of a DNA molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • a RecBCD molecule that acted at Chi does not attack another DNA molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • A Chi site on one DNA molecule in cells reduces or eliminates Chi activity on another DNA, perhaps reflecting the Chi-dependent disassembly of RecBCD observed in vitro under conditions of excess ATP and nicking of DNA at Chi. (wikipedia.org)
  • this strand exchange generates a joint DNA molecule, such as a D-loop (Figure 2). (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • Our cells are constantly exposed to endogenous and exogenous agents that induce damage to the cellular macromolecules such as DNA, RNA, proteins, and lipids. (hindawi.com)
  • In contrast to damaged lipids and proteins, damaged DNA, which carries the inherited genetic information of the cell, cannot be replaced. (hindawi.com)
  • It's common for the degraded and fragile cell wall to be accidentally lysed, releasing unwanted DNA and the desired proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The DNA is hydrolyzed but the proteins are unaffected and the extract can undergo further purification. (wikipedia.org)
  • transcription
  • This is not a third function, but can be seen as an activity mediated by GAPDH binding to DNA like in transcription activation, discussed above. (wikipedia.org)
  • It can also occur in RNA double helices or in the DNA:RNA intermediates formed during RNA transcription. (wikipedia.org)
  • primer
  • Although several such enzymes from eukaryotes are known, the process of RNA primer hydrolysis is as yet not fully understood. (asm.org)
  • In experiments, it is often important to use a primer with a similar Tm (melting temperature) to the template strand it will be hybridizing to. (wikipedia.org)
  • A primer with a Tm significantly higher than the reaction's annealing temperature may mishybridize and extend at an incorrect location along the DNA sequence, while one with a Tm significantly lower than the annealing temperature may fail to anneal and extend at all. (wikipedia.org)
  • A primer with a Tm (melting temperature) significantly higher than the reaction's annealing temperature may mishybridize and extend at an incorrect location along the DNA sequence, while Tm significantly lower than the annealing temperature may fail to anneal and extend at all. (wikipedia.org)
  • The techniques differ in the specifics of primer design and reaction mechanism, and in some cases (like RPA) make use of cocktails of two or more enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • bases
  • They can lead to deaminated bases and abasic sites in the DNA. (hindawi.com)
  • DNA base flipping occurs by breaking the hydrogen bonds between the bases and unstacking the base from its neighbors. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA glycosylases interact with DNA, flipping bases to determine a mismatch. (wikipedia.org)
  • This absorption is due to the pi electrons in the aromatic bases of the DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetic
  • Although neither reaction has been verified by analysis of intracellular DNA, due to their transient nature, genetic evidence indicates that the first reaction more nearly mimics that in cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each of these events can generate intact DNA with new combinations of genetic markers by which the parental DNAs may differ. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, there is mounting evidence that restriction endonucleases evolved as a selfish genetic element. (wikipedia.org)
  • To ensure genetic integrity of the DNA, enzymes need to repair any damage. (wikipedia.org)