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  • testes
  • PFOS induces Sertoli cell injury using testicular cells isolated from rodent testes, but it remains unknown if PFOS has similar effects in humans. (popcouncil.org)
  • One SSC is the precursor for multiple spermatozoa and therefore SSCs are much less numerous in the testes than cells undergoing spermatogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells present in the testes express molecules that play key roles in the regulation of SSC self-renewal. (wikipedia.org)
  • This factor is thought to be expressed in the peritubular cells in human testes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 12 (CXCL12) signaling via its receptor C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) is also involved in regulation of SSC fate decisions.CXCL12 is found in Sertoli cells in the basement membrane of the seminiferous tubules in adult mouse testes, and its receptor is expressed in undifferentiated spermatogonial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • cultures
  • Only follitropin will stimulate an increase in cyclic AMP in these cells, yet each agent individually increased the synthesis of androgen-binding protein in short-term cultures. (biochemj.org)
  • past
  • This information is based on the routine use of this system in our laboratory to study the Sertoli cell blood-testis barrier in the past two decades, which should be helpful for investigators in the field. (popcouncil.org)
  • When they move past the basal membrane they differentiate due to cell signals. (wikipedia.org)
  • capable
  • Overexpression of a FAK phosphomimetic and constitutively active mutant p-FAK-Y407E in these cells was capable of rescuing the PFOS-induced injury through corrective cellular organization of cytoskeletal elements. (popcouncil.org)
  • The stem cells are capable of dividing into more SSCs which is vital for maintaining the stem cell pool. (wikipedia.org)
  • These cells are capable of dividing to produce more SSCs but usually do not. (wikipedia.org)
  • In mice A Single (As) spermatogonia are capable of creating 2 separate daughter SSCs when they divide or the daughter cells can join and form A Paired (Apr) spermatogonia. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • This repair likely employs the process of non-homologous end joining involving XRCC1 and PARP1 proteins that are expressed in Sertoli cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • These findings indicated that the inhibited enzymes, oxidative stress, and the down-regulation of Sertoli cell function-related proteins play pivotal roles in CP-induced testicular damage. (go.jp)
  • Epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulation of A431 cells induces rapid tyrosine phosphorylation of intracellular signalling proteins which control cellular processes such as growth, proliferation and apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • induce
  • Recently however, some scientists have found a way to induce Sertoli cells to a juvenile proliferative phenotype outside of the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, hCG-treated endometrial cells induce an increase in T cell apoptosis (dissolution of T cells). (wikipedia.org)
  • As well as the mechanisms that limit immune cell entry and induce immune suppression, the eye also contains active immune cells that act upon the detection of foreign antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • These cells interact with the immune system to induce unusual suppression of the systemic immune system response to an antigen introduced into the eye. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies in mice have shown that the lack of presentation of eye self-antigens to specific T cells will fail to induce a sufficient amount of anergy to the self-antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • While the lack of antigen presentation (due to the physical barriers) is sufficient to prevent the activation of autoreactive immune cells to the eye, the failure to induce sufficient anergy to T cells has detrimental results. (wikipedia.org)
  • Paracrine signaling is a form of cell-to-cell communication in which a cell produces a signal to induce changes in nearby cells, altering the behavior of those cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In order for paracrine factors to successfully induce a response in the receiving cell, that cell must have the appropriate receptors available on the cell membrane to receive the signals, also known as being competent. (wikipedia.org)
  • proliferate
  • The absence of FGF9 tends to cause a female to develop Once fully differentiated, the Sertoli cell has been considered to be terminally differentiated, and is unable to proliferate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Germ cells proliferate after a short period of quiescence and migrate from their central location towards the basal membrane, at which stage they are known as spermatogonia [ 10 , 11 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • spermatogonia
  • Because of the apical progression of the spermatogonia (sperm stem cells), the occluding junctions must be dynamically reformed and broken to allow the immunoidentical spermatogonia to cross through the blood-testis barrier so they can become immunologically unique. (wikipedia.org)
  • immunologically
  • Immunologically privileged sites were thought to include: the brain, but this is now known to be incorrect and indeed immune cells of the CNS contribute to the maintenance of neurogenesis and spatial learning abilities in adulthood the eyes the placenta and the fetus the testicles Immune privilege is also believed to occur to some extent or able to be induced in articular cartilage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Citation
  • Due to its highly negative charge, hCG may repel the immune cells of the mother, protecting the fetus during the first trimester[citation needed]. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibit
  • Other factors that contribute to the maintenance of immune privilege include: low expression of classical MHC class Ia molecules expression of immunoregulatory nonclassical, low polymorphic class Ib MHC molecules increased expression of surface molecules that inhibit complement activation local production of immunosuppressive cytokines such as TGF-β presence of neuropeptides constitutive expression of Fas ligand that controls the entry of Fas-expressing lymphoid cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Signaling
  • Apoptosis is a result of a complex network of signaling pathways, which allows the organism to tightly control cell numbers and tissue size and to protect itself from rogue cells that threaten homeostasis [ 10 , 11 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • During stress signaling, p53 can be accumulated in cells and,when activated, initiates a cascade of events [ 12 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Although paracrine signaling elicits a diverse array of responses in the induced cells, most paracrine factors utilize a relatively streamlined set of receptors and pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • Paracrine signaling of growth factors between nearby cells has been shown to exacerbate carcinogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • diabetes mellitus
  • Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is characterized by the autoimmune destruction of insulin-producing pancreatic islet beta cells [ 27 , 28 ] in genetically susceptible individuals, resulting in the total lack of insulin. (hindawi.com)
  • antigen prese
  • Usually, trauma to one eye induces the release of eye antigens which are recognized and picked up by local antigen presenting cells (APC) such as macrophages and dendritic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Macrophages are directly involved in the fight against invading micro-organisms as well as being antigen-presenting cells which activate lymphocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are often found within tissues where they can be activated by antigen-presenting cells upon infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissue
  • With a grant from BBSRC we will first determine whether SC multiplication can be increased by reducing FSTL3 in mice and in tissue culture cells. (rvc.ac.uk)
  • These results identify and support a novel reproductive tissue-specific role for Akap9 in the coordinated regulation of Sertoli cells in the testis. (nih.gov)
  • isolation
  • However, the physical isolation of eye antigens results in the body's T cells never having encountered them at any time during development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biology
  • A novel way to deliver nanoparticles coupled with drugs to the deep lung is to utilize a bio-compatible cell-based system and deliver therapy through the peripheral vasculature instead of a pulmonary route," said corresponding author Dr. Donald F. Cameron of the University of South Florida (USF) Department of Pathology and Cell Biology. (nanotech-now.com)
  • columnar cells
  • Uniform cuboidal or columnar cells with moderate pale to lightly pink cytoplasm, often with prominent cytoplasmic lipid vacuoles (image B) , (image C) , & (image D) . (auanet.org)
  • mice
  • Experiments in mice involving the transfer of CD4+/CD25+ Treg cells from normal pregnant mice into abortion-prone animals resulted in the prevention of abortion. (wikipedia.org)
  • insulin
  • These are the first reported results which suggest an action of insulin and retinol directly on Sertoli cells even though the importance of both factors in male reproduction is known. (biochemj.org)
  • Addition of PD98059, a MEK inhibitor, to Sertoli cell culture demonstrated that the melatonin upregulation of insulin-like growth factor-1 and downregulation of estrogen may be through the MEK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway. (popcouncil.org)
  • terminally
  • At low (picomolar) concentrations EGF promotes cell growth of A431 cells whereas at higher (nanomolar) concentrations it inhibits growth by causing the cells to terminally differentiate. (wikipedia.org)
  • apoptosis
  • Primordial germ cell deficiency in the connexin 43 knockout mouse arises from apoptosis associated with abnormal p53 activation. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Mitochondrial Uncoupling Protein 2 in human cumulus cells is associated with regulating autophagy and apoptosis, maintaining gap junction integrity and progesterone synthesis. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Nuclear DNA damage can contribute to aging either indirectly (by increasing apoptosis or cellular senescence) or directly (by increasing cell dysfunction). (wikipedia.org)
  • In early (small) antral follicles, FSH is the major survival factor that rescues the small antral follicles (2-5 mm in diameter for humans) from apoptosis (programmed death of the somatic cells of the follicle and oocyte). (wikipedia.org)
  • Overproduction of SOD-1 increases oxidative damage and through this results in enhanced apoptosis and cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • sperm
  • The androgens function as paracrine hormones required by the Sertoli cells to support sperm production. (wikipedia.org)
  • The normal environment of the vagina is a hostile one for sperm cells, as it is very acidic (from the native microflora producing lactic acid), viscous, and patrolled by immune cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sertoli cell only syndrome is like other non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA) cases are managed by sperm retrieval through testicular sperm extraction (mTESE), micro-surgical testicular sperm extraction (mTESE), or testicular biopsy. (wikipedia.org)
  • A retrospective analysis performed in 2015 detailed the outcomes of N=148 men with non-obstructive azoospermia and diagnosed Sertoli cell-only syndrome: Men with SCOS: 148 Testicular sperm was successfully retrieved: 35/148 Successful ICSI: 20/148 Clinical pregnancy: 4/148 This study considers the effect of FSH levels on clinical success, and it excludes abnormal karyotypes. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2017). Predictive Factors of Successful Microdissection Testicular Sperm Extraction in Patients with Presumed Sertoli Cell-Only Syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • cords
  • for example, Fgf9 is responsible for development of the spermatic cords and the multiplication of Sertoli cells, both of which are crucial to male sexual development. (wikipedia.org)
  • gonads
  • Gonads arise from the thickening of coelomic epithelium, which at first appears as multiple cell layers. (wikipedia.org)
  • pancreatic
  • Starting from isolated neonatal porcine pancreatic islets (NPIs), we have obtained cell monolayers that were exposed to microencapsulated monolayered Sertoli cells (ESCs) for different time periods (7, 14, 21 days). (biomedsearch.com)
  • Five weeks later, the pancreatic alpha and beta cells have begun to emerge. (wikipedia.org)
  • function
  • each, including DP1, is a G protein-coupled receptors that works by activating G-S proteins which in turn raises cellular cAMP levels thereby mobilizing Cyclic adenosine monophosphate-activated cell signaling pathways which regulate cell function. (wikipedia.org)
  • hematopoietic
  • Adcetris is indicated for the treatment of adult patients with cHL at high risk of relapse or progression as post-autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (auto-HSCT) consolidation. (drugs.com)
  • ratio
  • From the middle stage until term, the beta cells continue to increase in number until they reach an approximate 1:1 ratio with the alpha cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • follicular
  • One part is from the thickening of the pharyngeal floor, which serves as the precursor of the thyroxine (T4) producing follicular cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • accumulation
  • The accumulation of unrepaired DNA damage is more prevalent in certain types of cells, particularly in non-replicating or slowly replicating cells, such as cells in the brain, skeletal and cardiac muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • interstitial
  • Additionally, histopathological examination showed that cisplatin-induced interstitial congestion, focal mononuclear cell inflammatory, cell infiltrate, acute tubular injury with reactive atypia and apoptotic cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Insulin
  • The limited availability of cadaveric human donor pancreata as well as the incomplete success of the Edmonton protocol for human islet allografts fasten search for new sources of insulin the producing cells for substitution cell therapy of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (T1DM). (biomedsearch.com)
  • The insulin/c-kit positive cells might represent a new, still unknown functionally immature β-cell like element in the porcine pancreas. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Insulin infusion in rats has seen increased levels of heme-oxygenase 1 expression, blocked by inhibited activation of PI3K or protein kinase C. miR-872 levels are reduced with inhibition of adipocytes of the 3T3-L1 cell line, along with those of miRNAs-155 and -183. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathways
  • More specifically, they are used in studies of the cell cycle and cancer-associated cell signalling pathways since they express abnormally high levels of the Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). (wikipedia.org)
  • tubular
  • Each arises on the lateral aspect of the corresponding mesonephric duct as a tubular invagination of the cells lining the abdominal cavity. (wikipedia.org)
  • promotes
  • this biases the development of naïve T lymphocytes to Th-2 rather than Th-1 helper cells and thereby promotes allergic rather than non-allergic inflammatory responses (see T helper cell#Th1/Th2 Model for helper T cells and T helper cell#Limitations to the Th1/Th2 model. (wikipedia.org)
  • ductal
  • The ductuli efferentes possess cuboidal cells with microvilli and lysosomal granules that modify the ductal fluid by reabsorbing some fluid. (wikipedia.org)
  • line
  • Please note this antibody gave negative results in WB with mouse fibroblast cell line lysates. (abcam.com)
  • gene
  • The germ plasm effectively turns off gene expression to render the genome of the cell inert. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gene for the FSH beta subunit is located on chromosome 11p13, and is expressed in gonadotropes of the pituitary cells, controlled by GnRH, inhibited by inhibin, and enhanced by activin. (wikipedia.org)
  • miR-872 has been found to be expressed in sertoli cells and to post-transcriptionally target the Sod-1 gene, which encodes the copper/zinc-binding superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD-1) enzyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • normal
  • The biodegradable components of the DNA nanotrains decay with the dead cancer cells and are removed by the body s normal housekeeping mechanisms. (regenerativemedicine.net)
  • clones
  • number of sources - referenced in - Subcellular localisation of recombinant Densin-180 clones expressed in HEK293 TSA cells Ranatunga, J.M. (2011) Subcellular localisation of recombinant Densin-180 clones expressed in HEK293 TSA cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • discriminate
  • We ve precisely targeted leukemia, lung, and liver cancer cells, and because the DNA probes are so precise in targeting only specific types of cancer cells we ve seen dramatic reduction in drug toxicity in comparison to standard chemotherapies, which don t discriminate well between cancerous and healthy cells. (regenerativemedicine.net)
  • lung
  • Moving forward, we are working to identify optimum dosage using mouse models for T-cell leukemia, lung and liver cancers, and triple negative breast cancer. (regenerativemedicine.net)
  • vagina
  • At about the fifth or sixth month the lumen of the vagina is produced by the breaking down of the central cells of the epithelium. (wikipedia.org)
  • type
  • The type of cancer cell the DNA nanotrain will seek out and destroy is determined by the specific compound added to the mixture as the trigger. (regenerativemedicine.net)