• One's
  • There are two types of political efficacy: internal efficacy (the belief that one can understand politics and therefore participate in politics) and external efficacy (that the government will respond to one's demands). (wikipedia.org)
  • outcomes
  • 1. What is the efficacy (vs. placebo and/or conventional antipsychotics) of clozapine during acute symptom episodes for reduction of positive symptoms, negative/deficit symptoms (i.e., primary, enduring negative symptoms), and other outcomes? (mentalhealth.com)
  • The clinical efficacy of clozapine for two outcomes, positive and negative symptoms, in acutely psychotic patients and in treatment-resistant schizophrenia patients has been most extensively studied. (mentalhealth.com)
  • Vaccine efficacy studies are used to measure several possible outcomes such as disease attack rates, hospitalizations, medical visits, and costs. (wikipedia.org)
  • The major disadvantages of vaccine efficacy trials are the complexity and expense of performing them, especially for relatively uncommon infectious outcomes of diseases for which the sample size required is driven up to achieve clinically useful statistical power. (wikipedia.org)
  • collective efficacy
  • Collective efficacy involves residents monitoring children playing in public areas, acting to prevent truancy and street corner "hanging" by teenagers, and confronting individuals who exploit or disturb public spaces. (wikipedia.org)
  • Advocates of collective efficacy claim that these measures increase community control over individuals, thus creating an environment where violent crime is less likely to occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • Researchers have argued that increasing collective efficacy can lead to a significant reduction of crime in communities. (wikipedia.org)
  • Communities with high levels of collective efficacy have been found to have lower rates of violence and homicide, suggesting that community participation in preventing violence reduces crime. (wikipedia.org)
  • Collective efficacy depends on the values shared by community members. (wikipedia.org)
  • The concept of collective efficacy has been used to explain why urban neighborhoods differ in the amount of crime that takes place in them. (wikipedia.org)
  • A key element of the collective efficacy perspective is that it focuses on the effects of informal norms and practices of the community in preventing crime, rather than on the effects of formal, established institutions (such as police forces). (wikipedia.org)
  • In order for collective efficacy to develop in a specific community or neighborhood, it is necessary that members of the community have strong feelings of trust and solidarity for each other. (wikipedia.org)
  • Collective efficacy thus requires that community members feel strongly bonded to each other. (wikipedia.org)
  • Collective efficacy is thought to reduce the likelihood of crime by preventing public disputes from erupting into violence. (wikipedia.org)
  • Collective efficacy not only reduces crime in public places, but also lowers the likelihood of some forms of crime in private spaces (for example, inside the home). (wikipedia.org)
  • A 2002 Chicago study, for example, found that collective efficacy reduces the probability of both female homicide and physical violence against females by male partners. (wikipedia.org)
  • The 2002 study, however, also found that the association between collective efficacy and lower levels of crime against women is stronger in communities where violence between intimate partners is commonly seen as negative. (wikipedia.org)
  • In other words, collective efficacy reduces crime in public and private spaces, but its effectiveness for deterring specific types of crime is higher in communities where those types of crime are disapproved of. (wikipedia.org)
  • Collective efficacy develops more easily in some types of communities than in others. (wikipedia.org)
  • Those communities that experience high levels of population decline, as well as those where most of the residents belong to social groups that possess a smaller share of the resources available in society, are less likely to develop a sufficient level of collective efficacy to significantly prevent or reduce crime. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since developing mutual trust and cooperation with neighbors requires time, those communities where individuals are more likely to move out have lower levels of collective efficacy. (wikipedia.org)
  • and] offers numerous suggestions for improving our personal lives and restructuring our social, political, and educational institutions and numerous insights into the nature of personal and social change" He also wrote that "the final chapter on collective efficacy. (wikipedia.org)
  • beliefs
  • It reviews in considerable detail the origins of efficacy beliefs, their structure, the processes through which they affect human well-being and accomplishments, and how these processes can be developed and enlisted for human betterment. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Contemporary Psychology, James E. Maddux wrote that "Bandura's aim is to 'document the many ways in which efficacy beliefs operate in concert with other socio-cognitive determinants in governing human adaptation and change' (p. vii). (wikipedia.org)
  • agonists
  • According to Zeev Vlodaver, Robert F. Wilson and Daniel J. Garry, "exenatide and liraglutide are synthetic GLP-1 agonists and have demonstrated glycemic efficacy (HbA1c reductions of between 0.7 and 2%) associated with mild weight loss. (wikipedia.org)
  • trials
  • Since 2004, clinical trials testing the efficacy of the influenza vaccine have been drifting in: 2058 people were vaccinated in October and November 2005. (wikipedia.org)
  • The FDA Animal Efficacy Rule (also known as Animal Rule) applies to development and testing of drugs and biologicals to reduce or prevent serious/life-threatening conditions caused by exposure to lethal or permanently disabling toxic agents (chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear substances), where human efficacy trials are not feasible or ethical. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies
  • The efficacy of prayer has been the topic of various scientific studies since Francis Galton first addressed it in 1872. (wikipedia.org)
  • There has been a shift from single piece efficacy studies to multiple piece," Mr. Weiss noted. (happi.com)
  • Studies consistently support its efficacy for reducing positive symptoms in acutely psychotic patients and in treatment-resistant patients, for preventing positive symptom exacerbations as a maintenance treatment, and for reducing symptoms of hostility and violence. (mentalhealth.com)
  • Summarize findings of clinical studies evaluating the safety and efficacy of cryopreserved platelets. (aabb.org)
  • Lack
  • The lack thereof results typically in violence and is a side effect of having low political efficacy, and therefore the feeling that a citizen is powerless in their own country. (wikipedia.org)
  • In women with bicornuate uterus and in need of contraception, two IUDs are generally applied (one in each horn) due to lack of evidence of efficacy with only one IUD. (wikipedia.org)
  • sufficient
  • As a result of this team effort, sufficient data has been generated for the development of a phase 2 clinical trial to analyze the efficacy of cryopreserved platelets in bleeding patients. (aabb.org)
  • The word efficacy is used in pharmacology and medicine to refer both to the maximum response achievable from a pharmaceutical drug in research settings, and to the capacity for sufficient therapeutic effect or beneficial change in clinical settings. (wikipedia.org)
  • safety
  • Safety, Pharmacokinetics and Efficacy of an AT-III Concentrate. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • To assess the safety, pharmacokinetics and efficacy of a plasma-derived AT-III concentrate in the treatment of subjects with congenital AT-III deficiency. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • A Phase II/III Pivotal Trial Evaluating the Safety, Pharmacokinetic Properties and Efficacy of a Plasma-Derived Anti-thrombin III Concentrate With Administration in Surgery, Pregnancy and Thromboembolic or Thrombotic Events. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • books.google.com - With the new Cosmetics Directive of the European Union, manufacturers and distributors of cosmetics are required to keep a dossier of products containing information on product safety and efficacy. (google.com)
  • This book provides the information to choose the right methods for proving efficacy and/or safety of all types of cosmetics. (google.com)
  • Smaller companies are acting like the major players to insure product safety and efficacy. (happi.com)
  • Marketers have always turned to testing service companies to ascertain the safety and efficacy of their products and get the claims support they require. (happi.com)
  • belief
  • In political science, political efficacy is the citizens' faith and trust in government and their belief that they can understand and influence political affairs. (wikipedia.org)
  • types
  • There are, of course, also certain types of prayer whose efficacy can not (by definition) be measured in the physical world, e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • Absolute efficacy against both types of influenza, as measured by isolating the virus in culture, identifying it on real-time polymerase-chain-reaction assay, or both, was 68 percent (95 percent confidence interval [CI], 46 to 81) for the inactivated vaccine and 36 percent (95 percent CI, 0 to 59) for the live attenuated vaccine. (wikipedia.org)
  • reduction
  • For example, a skin care marketer recently came to Consumer Product Testing Co. wanting to run a large-scale wrinkle reduction study with five different efficacy tests and 400 participants. (happi.com)
  • In terms of relative efficacy, there was a 50 percent (95 percent CI, 20 to 69) reduction in laboratory-confirmed influenza among subjects who received inactivated vaccine as compared with those given live attenuated vaccine. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • The luminous efficacy of a source is the product of how well it converts energy to electromagnetic radiation, and how well the emitted radiation is detected by the human eye. (wikipedia.org)
  • study
  • The NEJM did a study on the A flu efficacy Influenza virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Drug Efficacy Study Implementation (DESI) was a program begun by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the 1960s after the requirement (in the Kefauver-Harris Drug Control Act) that all drugs be efficacious as well as safe, was made part of US law. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Drug Efficacy Study Implementation (DESI) evaluated over 3000 separate products and over 16,000 therapeutic claims. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Drug Efficacy Study of the National Research Council's Division of Medical Sciences, 1966-1969 Chhabra R, Kremzner ME, Kiliany BJ. (wikipedia.org)
  • several
  • The introduction of clozapine and further research regarding its novel clinical effects have stimulated renewed interest in drug development and fostered several hypotheses regarding ways in which the efficacy or adverse effects profile of antipsychotic drugs might be improved. (mentalhealth.com)
  • biological
  • It is the combined influence of both affinity and efficacy which will determine how effectively a drug will produced a biological effect, a property known as potency. (wikipedia.org)
  • high
  • When citizens have high efficacy, they have faith in their government and believe that they have the ability to influence political leaders and affect the government. (wikipedia.org)
  • generally
  • The implication of this work is that efficacy has to be defined by at least two equilibrium constants (or, more generally, by four rate constants). (wikipedia.org)
  • difference
  • The main difference between the luminous efficacy of radiation and the luminous efficacy of a source is that the latter accounts for input energy that is lost as heat or otherwise exits the source as something other than electromagnetic radiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2013. Making a Difference: Political Efficacy and Policy Preference Construction. (wikipedia.org)
  • ways
  • There are multiple ways in which citizens' political efficacy can be expressed: through the media, by having the right to protest, by being able to create petitions, and by having free and fair elections. (wikipedia.org)
  • possible
  • Luminous efficacy can be normalized by the maximum possible luminous efficacy to a dimensionless quantity called luminous efficiency. (wikipedia.org)
  • Photopic luminous efficacy of radiation has a maximum possible value of 683 lm/W, for the case of monochromatic light at a wavelength of 555 nm (green). (wikipedia.org)
  • When expressed in dimensionless form (for example, as a fraction of the maximum possible luminous efficacy), this value may be called luminous efficiency of a source, overall luminous efficiency or lighting efficiency. (wikipedia.org)
  • control
  • Though both share similar antecedents, general efficacy is thought to be more resistant to ephemeral influences and more tied to other self-evaluation constructs such as self-esteem or locus of control. (wikipedia.org)
  • example
  • In medicine, efficacy is the capacity for beneficial change (or therapeutic effect) of a given intervention (for example a drug, medical device, surgical procedure, or a public health intervention). (wikipedia.org)
  • actions
  • When citizens have low efficacy, they do not have faith in their government and do not believe that their actions affect the government and the actions of their political leaders. (wikipedia.org)