• Contrast
  • Reducing the amount of scattered x-rays increases the image's contrast resolution and, consequently, the visibility of soft tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • By blocking scattered x-rays, the Bucky-Potter grid improves contrast but also increases the amount of radiation absorbed by the patient. (wikipedia.org)
  • By contrast, inelastic X-ray scattering methods are useful in studying excitations of the sample, rather than the distribution of its atoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • An article from the heart center in Leipzig suggests that intraoperative 3D imaging with rotational angiography is much more precise and can be performed with low contrast and low radiation dose if combined with diluted contrast injection and rapid ventricular pacing. (wikipedia.org)
  • angle
  • It was found that Monte Carlo results were in good agreement with the experimental data, whereas the small angle approximation considerably underestimated the multiple scattering contributions to the transmitted light for our experimental conditions. (spie.org)
  • For a given interaction (Coulombic, magnetic, gravitational, contact, etc.), the impact parameter and the scattering angle have a definite one-to-one functional dependence on each other. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term BSDF is sometimes used in a slightly different context, for the function describing the amount of the scatter (not scattered light), simply as a function of the incident light angle. (wikipedia.org)
  • attenuation
  • Here are example approximate half-value layers for a variety of materials against a source of gamma rays (Iridium-192): Concrete: 44.5 mm Steel: 12.7 mm Lead: 4.8 mm Tungsten: 3.3 mm Uranium: 2.8 mm Attenuation coefficient Radiation protection http://www.euronuclear.org/info/encyclopedia/h/half-value-thickness.htm Definition from the European Nuclear Society FDA. (wikipedia.org)
  • calculation
  • The formalism allows the calculation of the electric and magnetic fields inside and outside a spherical object and is generally used to calculate either how much light is scattered, the total optical cross section, or where it goes, the form factor. (wikipedia.org)
  • produces
  • and a unit that produces data before reconstruction on the basis of the detected X-ray photon which corresponds to the second energy region, corrects and processes the data before reconstruction with the scattered photon distribution so as to produce corrected data, and reconstructs an image corresponding to the second energy region for which scattered radiation is corrected. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Raman scattering of near-infrared femtosecond laser pulses produces coherent longitudinal optical phonon and plasmon oscillations in the semiconductor InSb. (ebscohost.com)
  • Optics
  • The scattered power and the depolarization ratio fit with the corresponding values obtained in the geometric optics approximation in the range of its validity. (osapublishing.org)
  • interference
  • The THz spectra exhibit features consistent with Raman selection rules including interference of allowed and forbidden Raman scattering. (ebscohost.com)
  • Due to the interference of the scatter waves from the two laser beams, there are different frequency components in the superimposition. (wikipedia.org)
  • dose
  • CHICAGO, Nov. 27, 2012 /PRNewswire-USNewswire/ -- The radiation dose to areas of the body near the breast during mammography is negligible, or very low, and does not result in an increased risk of cancer, according to a study presented today at the annual meeting of the Radiological Society of North America (RSNA). (bio-medicine.org)
  • To better understand the potential impact of scatter radiation, Dr. Chetlen and colleagues set out to measure the dose received by the thyroid gland, salivary gland, sternum, uterus and the lens of the eye during screening digital mammography. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Absorbed radiation dose is measured in a unit called a milligray (mGy). (bio-medicine.org)
  • In fact, all areas except for the sternum received less than 2 percent of annual background radiation dose. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Based on the extremely low scatter radiation dose to the thyroid -- equivalent to just a few minutes of background radiation -- thyroid shields are unnecessary during mammography. (bio-medicine.org)
  • In addition, the researchers warn that use of thyroid shields could result in an increased radiation dose to patients. (bio-medicine.org)
  • A thyroid shield gets in the way of the exam and can actually cause an increase in radiation dose by necessitating repeat exams," Dr. Chetlen said. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The radiation dose to areas of the body near the breast during mammography is negligible, or very low, and does not result in an increased risk of cancer, according to a new study. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • Therefore it is very important to monitor radiation dose applied in a hybrid OR both for the patient and the medical staff. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are a few simple measures to protect people in the OR from scatter radiation, thus lower their dose. (wikipedia.org)
  • Variation
  • The precipitable water depth and the scattered irradiance intensity were measured at the Atmospheric Physics Laboratory of the University of Patras during sunny days, at constant solar elevations, in the time period 2006-2009, exhibiting seasonal variation with a summer maximum and a winter minimum. (springer.com)
  • light
  • white light scatter-plate interferometers. (wikipedia.org)
  • The team was the first in the world to isolate the subsurface scattering component (a specialized case of BTDF) using the simplest light stage, consisting on moveable light source, moveable high-res digital camera, 2 polarizers in a few positions and really simple algorithms on a modest computer. (wikipedia.org)
  • The team utilized the existing scientific knowledge that light that is reflected and scattered from the air-to-oil layer retains its polarization while light that travels within the skin loses its polarization. (wikipedia.org)
  • The subsurface scattering component can be simulated as a steady high-scatter glow of light from within the models, without which the skin does not look realistic. (wikipedia.org)
  • Laser surface velocimeters use the laser Doppler principle to evaluate the laser light scattered back from a moving object. (wikipedia.org)
  • detect
  • The inspection system has two detection systems configured to detect radiation scattered from the person as the person moves along the pathway and an X-ray source positioned between the detection systems. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Multiple
  • Multiple spattering effects were determined by concurrent use of two optical systems for the same model droplet cloud, of which one (the reference system) was negligibly affected by multiple scattering. (spie.org)
  • lasers
  • Coherent X-ray beams could be produced by modern synchrotron radiation sources, free electron lasers and high harmonic sources (HHG). (wikipedia.org)
  • A. E. Siegman, "Interaction of Radiation with Matter," in Lasers and Their Applications (Gordon and Breach, 1976). (wikipedia.org)
  • surface
  • In physics and engineering, the radiative heat transfer from one surface to another is the equal to the difference of incoming and outgoing radiation from the first surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • lower
  • The data analysis results in a higher scattered irradiance summer maximum and a lower winter minimum during the prevalence of continental air masses than that of maritime air masses. (springer.com)
  • object
  • An imaging system generates images of the interior of an object using radiation which is attenuated and scattered by the interior of the object. (google.com)
  • The object is radiated at a number of points near the exterior of the object, and the radiation emerging from the object is measured at an array of exit points near the exterior of the object. (google.com)
  • Most systems which produce images of the interior of an object, such as the human body, utilize in-line unscattered radiation, such as x-ray sources and detectors. (google.com)