• genes
  • In addition, both proteins can inhibit the transcription of cell cycle genes containing E2F binding sites in their promoters. (wikipedia.org)
  • The proteins encoded by two groups of conserved genes, the Polycomb and trithorax groups, have been proposed to maintain, at the level of chromatin structure, the expression pattern of homeotic genes during Drosophila development. (genetics.org)
  • The proteins encoded by the Polycomb group are postulated to prevent transcription of homeotic genes outside of their normal expression domain and the proteins encoded by the trithorax group are postulated to allow transcription of homeotic genes within their normal expression domain. (genetics.org)
  • p107
  • To clarify the dependence of terminal differentiation on the presence of the different pRb-related proteins, we have studied myogenesis using isogenic primary fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos individually deficient for pRb, p107, or p130. (nih.gov)
  • Retinoblastoma-like 1 (p107), also known as RBL1, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RBL1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • histone deacetylase
  • The Rb-E2F/DP complex also attracts a histone deacetylase (HDAC) protein to the chromatin, reducing transcription of S phase promoting factors, further suppressing DNA synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Histone deacetylase inhibitors exert their anti-tumour effects via the induction of expression changes of oncogenes or tumour suppressor, through modulating that the acetylation/deactylation of histones and/or non-histone proteins such as transcription factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the histone deacetylase/acuc/apha family and is a component of the histone deacetylase complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • novel
  • By IHC, 4 tumors (11.8%) had complete loss of RB protein expression, including 2 with homozygous deletion of RB1 by FISH and 1 with hemizygous deletion of RB1 by FISH combined with a novel nonsense mutation in RB1. (nih.gov)
  • phosphorylate
  • These receptor tyrosine kinases in turn phosphorylate and activate many other proteins, including Fos/Jun/Myc and phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI-3-K). Fos/Jun/Myc helps to activate the Cyclin D/Cdk4 complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • CDK4
  • A recent study of CDK4/6 inhibitors in glioblastoma (GBM) xenografts identified retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein RB1 status as a determinant of tumor therapeutic efficacy. (nih.gov)
  • The Cyclin D/Cdk4 complex is a multi-protein structure consisting of the proteins Cyclin D and cyclin-dependent kinase 4, or Cdk4, a serine-threonine kinase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once Cdk4 is activated and is bound with Cyclin D, the Cyclin D/Cdk4 complex phosphorylates Retinoblastoma protein (pRb). (wikipedia.org)
  • First and foremost, under non-dividing conditions multiple proteins can inhibit the Cyclin D/Cdk4 complex by binding Cdk4 and inhibiting its association with Cyclin D. Primarily, this is accomplished by p27 but it can also be done by p16 and p21. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein dimerizes with CDK4/6 to regulate the G1/S phase transition and entry into the S-phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cyclin D1-CDK4 complex promotes passage through the G1 phase by inhibiting the retinoblastoma protein (pRb). (wikipedia.org)
  • loss of Rb protein
  • However, the primary developmental impact of the loss of Rb protein has remained unclear. (le.ac.uk)
  • We observed that the loss of Rb protein does not have a major impact on microspore division but causes limited hyperproliferation of the vegetative cell and, to a lesser degree, of the sperm cells. (le.ac.uk)
  • Our results indicate that hyperproliferation caused by the loss of Rb protein prevents or delays cell determination during plant male gametogenesis, providing further evidence for a direct link between fate determination and cell proliferation. (le.ac.uk)
  • cyclin
  • A cyclin-dependent kinase complex (CDKC, cyclin-CDK) is a protein complex formed by the association of an inactive catalytic subunit of a protein kinase, cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK), with a regulatory subunit, cyclin. (wikipedia.org)
  • This protein and another 2 members, E2F2 and E2F3, have an additional cyclin binding domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyclin D1 is a protein required for progression through the G1 phase of the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • Retinoblastoma (RB) protein expression was examined in paraffin and frozen tissue sections of 36 primary non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLC) using immunohistochemistry with confirmation by direct Western blotting. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Skeletal muscle cells lacking the retinoblastoma protein display defects in muscle gene expression and accumulate in S and G2 phases of the cell cy. (nih.gov)
  • Retinoblastoma protein function and p16(INK4a) expression in actinic keratosis, squamous cell carcinoma in situ and invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the skin and links between p16(INK4a) expression and infiltrative behavior. (lu.se)
  • Altered expression of retinoblastoma protein and known prognostic variables in locally advanced bladder cancer. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Retinoblastoma protein expression predicts response to bacillus Calmette-Guérin immunotherapy in patients with T1G3 bladder cancer. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Representative images of tumors analyzed for RB1 copy number by FISH (red) and for RB1 protein expression by IHC (brown). (nih.gov)
  • This leads to altered mRNA splicing and decreased expression of POLA1 protein to a level that does not impair DNA replication. (wikipedia.org)