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  • implant
  • The Argus retinal prosthesis, an electronic retinal implant, was successfully fitted to a 67-year-old woman in Italy at the Careggi Hospital in 2016. (wikipedia.org)
  • photoisomerization
  • The photoisomerization of 11-cis-retinal to all-trans-retinal initiates the phototransduction pathway through which the brain detects light. (wikipedia.org)
  • When struck by a photon, 11-cis retinal undergoes photoisomerization to all-trans retinal which changes the conformation of the opsin GPCR leading to signal transduction cascades which causes closure of cyclic GMP-gated cation channel, and hyperpolarization of the photoreceptor cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • systemic
  • 1985;27:225-45 Biesalski HK, Nohr D New aspects in vitamin a metabolism: the role of retinyl esters as systemic and local sources for retinol in mucous epithelia. (wikipedia.org)
  • physiology
  • He completed his Ph.D. in the field of neuroscience and began a career focusing on the physiology and biophysics of retinal function. (wikipedia.org)
  • retinol
  • The other enzymes of the visual cycle complete the reactions necessary to oxidize and esterify all-trans-retinol to a retinyl ester (RPE65's substrate) and to oxidize 11-cis-retinol to 11-cis-retinal (the required photoactive visual pigment component). (wikipedia.org)
  • outer
  • When seen in section, each cell consists of an outer non-pigmented part containing a large oval nucleus and an inner pigmented portion which extends as a series of straight thread-like processes between the rods, this being especially the case when the eye is exposed to light. (wikipedia.org)
  • diseases
  • August 25, 1933 - August 28, 2012) was an Israeli ophthalmologist specializing in the diagnosis and treatment of retinal and genetic eye diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • This comes not directly from the visual cycle but from several retinal pools of retinal binding proteins which are connected to each other by the transportation and reaction steps of the visual cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • damage
  • A 2014 study found that LEDs cause retinal damage even in settings where they are used indirectly, such as household light bulbs. (wikipedia.org)
  • role
  • This role is seen, however, only in a background genetically sensitized by mutations in the pigment cell transcription factor MITF. (sigmaaldrich.com)