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  • Proteins
  • S. Castellano, V.N. Gladyshev, R. Guigo, M.J. Berry: SelenoDB 1.0: A database of selenoprotein genes, proteins and SECIS elements, Nucleic Acids Res. (springer.com)
  • Crick then proposed that prior to incorporation into proteins, amino acids are first attached to adapter molecules which have unique surface features that can bind to specific bases on the RNA templates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nucleic acid aptamers are nucleic acid species that have been engineered through repeated rounds of in vitro selection or equivalently, SELEX (systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment) to bind to various molecular targets such as small molecules, proteins, nucleic acids, and even cells, tissues and organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nucleotide
  • We confirmed this finding by generating bicistronic luciferase reporter plasmids, and we were able to map a potential internal ribosome entry site-containing region to a 2474-nucleotide region of the intergenic sequence. (ox.ac.uk)
  • b, Sequence composition of homopolymer runs that were found at 3′ termini of candidate 3P tags and included ≥1 untemplated nucleotide. (nih.gov)
  • e, Nucleotide sequence composition at mRNA end regions. (nih.gov)
  • The sharp adenosine peak at position +1 (*) was due only partly to cleavage prior to an A. Also contributing to this peak (and to both depletion of A at position −1 and blurring of sequence composition at other positions) was cleavage after an A, for which the templated A was assigned to the poly(A) tail, resulting in a 1 nucleotide offset from the cleavage-site register. (nih.gov)
  • RNA interference has an important role in defending cells against parasitic nucleotide sequences - viruses and transposons. (wikipedia.org)
  • The name poly(A) tail (for polyadenylic acid tail) reflects the way RNA nucleotides are abbreviated, with a letter for the base the nucleotide contains (A for adenine, C for cytosine, G for guanine and U for uracil). (wikipedia.org)
  • Fiers' group expanded on their MS2 coat protein work, determining the complete nucleotide-sequence of bacteriophage MS2-RNA (whose genome encodes just four genes in 3569 base pairs [bp]) and Simian virus 40 in 1976 and 1978, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was for some years unclear if the function of Spot 42 was mediated through the 109 nucleotide RNA itself or if the function was mediated through the 14 amino acids long peptide which is hypothetically encoded from within the sRNA sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • RNAs
  • A) Schematic representation of RNAs a-g containing Tpm1 exon 3 and flanking regulatory elements. (nih.gov)
  • RNAs d-g contain the individual regulatory elements as indicated. (nih.gov)
  • Cis -regulatory elements play a number of important roles in determining the fate of messenger RNAs (mRNAs). (springer.com)
  • Like the untranslated regions, many of these non-coding RNAs have regulatory roles. (wikipedia.org)
  • But, for many long noncoding RNAs - a seemingly large group of regulatory RNAs that, for example, includes the RNA Xist, which mediates X chromosome inactivation - a poly(A) tail is part of the mature RNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sequencing preparation involved creating libraries by cloning of DNA reverse transcribed from endogenous small RNAs of 21-25 bp size selected by column and gel electrophoresis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, next-generation sequencing platforms in the miRNA-SEQ method facilitate the sequencing of large pools of small RNAs in a single sequencing run. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first analysis of small RNAs using miRNA-seq methods examined approximately 1.4 million small RNAs from the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana using Lynx Therapeutics' Massively Parallel Signature Sequencing (MPSS) sequencing platform. (wikipedia.org)
  • This study demonstrated the potential of novel, high-throughput sequencing technologies for the study of small RNAs, and it showed that genomes generate large numbers of small RNAs with plants as particularly rich sources of small RNAs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Later studies used other sequencing technologies, such as a study in C. elegans which identified 18 novel miRNA genes as well as a new class of nematode small RNAs termed 21U-RNAs. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was discovered by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and 2-D fingerprinting in an attempt to study the accumulation of small RNAs in E. coli during amino acid starvation. (wikipedia.org)
  • This was based on the observation that Spot42 contains structural features similar to other non-coding RNAs found in E. coli (such as 6S RNA and lambda bacteriophage), as well as features that are typically found in mRNAs (i.e., polypurine sequence followed by AUG, 14 amino acids and an UGA terminator). (wikipedia.org)
  • polymerase
  • RESULTS: We used antibodies against histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylations, a modification associated with promoters and open/active chromatin, histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylations associated with Polycomb-repressed regions, and ribonucleic acid polymerase II associated with transcriptional initiation to identify the chromatin state signature of the mouse forelimb during mid-gestation at embryonic day 12. (oregonstate.edu)
  • In 1975, he and Alan Coulson published a sequencing procedure using DNA polymerase with radiolabelled nucleotides that he called the Plus and Minus technique. (wikipedia.org)
  • RNA polymerase (ribonucleic acid polymerase), both abbreviated RNAP or RNApol, official name DNA-directed RNA polymerase, is a member of a family of enzymes that are essential to life: they are found in all organisms(species) and many viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetic
  • The role of "messenger" RNA in translating the genetic information of DNA into specific amino acid sequences in protein has readily been accepted. (annals.org)
  • Extending this work, Marshall Nirenberg and Philip Leder revealed the triplet nature of the genetic code and were able to determine the sequences of 54 out of 64 codons in their experiments. (wikipedia.org)
  • While the process of artificial engineering of nucleic acid ligands is highly interesting to biology and biotechnology, the notion of aptamers in the natural world had yet to be uncovered until 2002 when two groups led by Ronald Breaker and Evgeny Nudler discovered a nucleic acid-based genetic regulatory element (which was named riboswitch) that possesses similar molecular recognition properties to the artificially made aptamers. (wikipedia.org)
  • tRNA
  • This process of translation of codons into amino acids requires two other types of RNA: Transfer RNA (tRNA), that mediates recognition of the codon and provides the corresponding amino acid, and ribosomal RNA (rRNA), that is the central component of the ribosome's protein-manufacturing machinery. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amino acids are selected, collected, and carried to the ribosome by transfer RNA (tRNA) molecules, which enter one part of the ribosome and bind to the messenger RNA chain. (wikipedia.org)
  • genome
  • Each tag sequence with a unique genome match is depicted as a bar, colored by tag frequency (key). (nih.gov)
  • Nevertheless, in 1977 his group was able to sequence most of the 5,386 nucleotides of the single-stranded bacteriophage φX174, completing the first fully sequenced DNA-based genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • The refinement of the Plus and Minus method resulted in the chain-termination, or Sanger method (see below), which formed the basis of the techniques of DNA sequencing, genome mapping, data storage, and bioinformatic analysis most widely used in the following quarter-century of research. (wikipedia.org)
  • The advent of these technologies resulted in a rapid intensification in the scope and speed of completion of genome sequencing projects. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first complete genome sequence of an eukaryotic organelle, the human mitochondrion (16,568 bp, about 16.6 kb [kilobase]), was reported in 1981, and the first chloroplast genomes followed in 1986. (wikipedia.org)
  • ribosomal
  • Ribosomes consist of two major components: the small ribosomal subunit, which reads the RNA, and the large subunit, which joins amino acids to form a polypeptide chain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ribosomes are ribozymes, because the catalytic peptidyl transferase activity that links amino acids together is performed by the ribosomal RNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Expression
  • Gene expression is regulated through the integrated action of many cis-regulatory elements, including core promoters, enhancers, silencers, and insulators. (oregonstate.edu)
  • cleavage
  • The most well-studied outcome is post-transcriptional gene silencing, which occurs when the guide strand pairs with a complementary sequence in a messenger RNA molecule and induces cleavage by Argonaute 2 (Ago2), the catalytic component of the RISC. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the same year Walter Gilbert and Allan Maxam of Harvard University independently developed the Maxam-Gilbert method (also known as the chemical method) of DNA sequencing, involving the preferential cleavage of DNA at known bases, a less efficient method. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • Later on, preQ1 riboswitch was identified as a conserved sequence on the 5' UTR of genes in many gram-positive bacteria and was proved to be associated with synthesis of preQ1. (wikipedia.org)
  • RNAP will preferentially release its RNA transcript at specific DNA sequences encoded at the end of genes, which are known as terminators. (wikipedia.org)
  • downstream
  • The gene encoding GPR41 is located immediately downstream of a related gene encoding GPR40, a receptor for long chain fatty acids. (ox.ac.uk)
  • 1972
  • In 1972, Walter Fiers and his team at the Laboratory of Molecular Biology of the University of Ghent (Ghent, Belgium) were the first to determine the sequence of a gene: the gene for Bacteriophage MS2 coat protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • While preQ1 was first discovered as an anticodon sequence of tRNAs from E.coli in 1972, preQ1 riboswitch was not first found until 2004 and recognized even later. (wikipedia.org)
  • correlation
  • Considering that not all DNA analogs of RNA aptamers show functionality, the correlation between DNA and RNA sequence and their structure and function requires further investigation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transfer RNA
  • For each coding triplet in the messenger RNA there is a distinct transfer RNA that matches and which carries the correct amino acid for that coding triplet. (wikipedia.org)
  • consensus
  • dnaMATE calculates a consensus melting temperature (Tm) for any given short DNA sequence (16-30 nts) based on three independent thermodynamic data tables. (bioinformatics.ca)
  • PreQ1-II riboswitch, only found in Lactobacillales, has a larger and more complex consensus sequence and structure than preQ1-I riboswitch, with an average of 58 nucleotides composing its aptamer, which forms as many as five base-paired substructures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Exons
  • Historically, exons are considered the coding sequence and introns are considered the "junk" DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Depending on the needs of the cell, regulatory mechanisms choose which exons, and sometimes introns, to join together. (wikipedia.org)
  • miRNAs
  • Although large numbers of miRNAs have been cloned and sequenced, methods for analyzing their targets are far from perfect. (springer.com)
  • Methods exist that can predict the likely binding sites of miRNAs in target transcripts using sequence alignment, thermodynamics or machine learning approaches. (springer.com)
  • Applied Biosystems SOLiD sequencing platform has also been used to examine the prognostic value of miRNAs in detecting human breast cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • introns
  • introns, 5′ and 3′ UTRs in grey) has cis-acting localization elements in its primary sequence. (nih.gov)
  • siRNA
  • Comparison of sequences of exogenous mi/siRNA allows selection of exogenous miRNA to be administered to cell to enhance or limit this affect, and therefore to control unwanted disregulation, or to upregulate an endogenous miRNA-regulated gene of interest. (google.com)
  • In one embodiment, the invention provides a method of choosing an exogenous mi/siRNA sequence to be applied to a cell for the purpose of downregulating a selected gene that takes into account endogenous miRNA target sequence(s). (google.com)
  • As we move forward, we continue to focus on the development and commercialization of differentiated products using our three technology platforms - our proven CONTRAMID(R) platform, our promising abuse- and misuse-deterrent platform, INTELLITAB(TM), and our PNDS(TM) platform for the optimized delivery of water-insoluble drugs and, potentially, short interfering ribonucleic acid (siRNA), a rapidly emerging area of drug delivery. (medindia.net)
  • Two types of small ribonucleic acid (RNA) molecules - microRNA (miRNA) and small interfering RNA (siRNA) - are central to RNA interference. (wikipedia.org)
  • A riboregulator may respond to a signal molecule in any number of manners including, translation (or repression of translation) of the RNA into a protein, activation of a ribozyme, release of silencing RNA (siRNA), conformational change, and/or binding other nucleic acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • miRNA
  • It is known in the art that number of endogenous miRNA sequences that are actually expressed in any given cell type is small compared to the total number of miRNA sequences that have been identified, and that in many cell types, a substantial majority of the miRNA in the cell is one of less than 10 types. (google.com)
  • genetic
  • Many of the strides made in genetic diagnostics are direct results of the Human Genome Project, an international thirteen-year effort begun in 1990 by the U.S. Department of Energy and the National Institutes of Health, which mapped and sequenced the human genome in its entirety. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Because binding is based on base-pairing, a riboregulator can be tailored to differentiate and respond to individual genetic sequences and combinations thereof. (wikipedia.org)
  • While the process of artificial engineering of nucleic acid ligands is highly interesting to biology and biotechnology, the notion of aptamers in the natural world had yet to be uncovered until 2002 when two groups led by Ronald Breaker and Evgeny Nudler discovered a nucleic acid-based genetic regulatory element (which was named riboswitch) that possesses similar molecular recognition properties to the artificially made aptamers. (wikipedia.org)
  • genome
  • ESTs came to prominence during the 1990s as an efficient method to determine the gene content of an organism without sequencing the entire genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • He and his colleague's discoveries contributed to the successful sequence the first DNA-based genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Over this time, developments in obtaining nucleotide sequence greatly improved, leading to the publication of the first complete genome of a bacteriophage in 1977. (wikipedia.org)
  • high-throughput
  • There are two key contemporary techniques in the field: microarrays, which quantify a set of predetermined sequences, and RNA-Seq, which uses high-throughput sequencing to capture all sequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • A variant of SAGE using high-throughput sequencing techniques, called digital gene expression analysis, was also briefly used. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, these methods were largely overtaken by high throughput sequencing of entire transcripts, which provided additional information on transcript structure e.g. splice variants. (wikipedia.org)
  • ENZYMES
  • Attempts have been made to develop ribozymes as therapeutic agents, as enzymes which target defined RNA sequences for cleavage, as biosensors, and for applications in functional genomics and gene discovery. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the idea of RNA catalysis is motivated in part by the old question regarding the origin of life: Which comes first, enzymes that do the work of the cell or nucleic acids that carry the information required to produce the enzymes? (wikipedia.org)
  • cleavage
  • Hormonal regulation of messenger ribonucleic acid expression for steroidogenic factor-1, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, and cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage in bovine luteal cells. (nih.gov)
  • Mechanisms underlying the steroidogenic synergy of insulin and luteinizing hormone in porcine granulosa cells: joint amplification of pivotal sterol-regulatory genes encoding the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor, steroidogenic acute regulatory (stAR) protein and cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage (P450scc) enzyme. (nih.gov)
  • Leydig cell aging: steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme. (nih.gov)
  • interactions
  • Di University environment interviewee contract saintis yang optimis manuscript following calamity acylation does information ' appearance of Manhood ' amino O sequence Figure acetylation, polyhistidine-tagged beggarly structure interactions sky diagram. (pckltdlaw.com)
  • Crick was not satisfied with this hypothesis given that the four bases of RNA are hydrophilic and that many amino acids prefer interactions with hydrophobic groups. (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • Differential expression of steroidogenic factors 1 and 2, cytochrome p450scc, and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein in human pancreas. (nih.gov)
  • Econazole and miconazole inhibit steroidogenesis and disrupt steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein expression post-transcriptionally. (nih.gov)
  • Subsequent research on miRNAs has focused on their biochemical processing and mechanism of action , the scope of their regulatory programs and their differential expression profiles in development and disease . (google.com)
  • Identification of genes with expression levels that are altered in age-related cataract relative to normal lenses points to those protective and regulatory processes important in the maintenance of lens transparency. (arvojournals.org)
  • highly conserve
  • The complex moves along through the untranslated region until it stalls just prior to reaching the start codon because it encounters a highly conserved sequence (a Kozak consensus sequence in eukaryotes, or Shine-Dalgarno sequence in prokaryotes). (wikipedia.org)
  • pairs
  • Two important algorithms for aligning pairs of sequences are the Needleman-Wunsch algorithm and the Smith-Waterman algorithm. (wikipedia.org)
  • patterns
  • In sociology, sequence methods are increasingly used to study life-course and career trajectories, patterns of organizational and national development, conversation and interaction structure, and the problem of work/family synchrony. (wikipedia.org)
  • process
  • The Decentralized Procedure (DCP) regulatory approval process for a number of European countries is progressing for Labopharm's twice-daily tramadol-acetaminophen. (medindia.net)
  • In bioinformatics, sequence analysis is the process of subjecting a DNA, RNA or peptide sequence to any of a wide range of analytical methods to understand its features, function, structure, or evolution. (wikipedia.org)