• polymerase
  • RESULTS: We used antibodies against histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylations, a modification associated with promoters and open/active chromatin, histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylations associated with Polycomb-repressed regions, and ribonucleic acid polymerase II associated with transcriptional initiation to identify the chromatin state signature of the mouse forelimb during mid-gestation at embryonic day 12. (oregonstate.edu)
  • DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. (ucdenver.edu)
  • In 1975, he and Alan Coulson published a sequencing procedure using DNA polymerase with radiolabelled nucleotides that he called the Plus and Minus technique. (wikipedia.org)
  • RNA polymerase (ribonucleic acid polymerase), both abbreviated RNAP or RNApol, official name DNA-directed RNA polymerase, is a member of a family of enzymes that are essential to life: they are found in all organisms(species) and many viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteins
  • Crick then proposed that prior to incorporation into proteins, amino acids are first attached to adapter molecules which have unique surface features that can bind to specific bases on the RNA templates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nucleic acid aptamers are nucleic acid species that have been engineered through repeated rounds of in vitro selection or equivalently, SELEX (systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment) to bind to various molecular targets such as small molecules, proteins, nucleic acids, and even cells, tissues and organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • RNAs
  • A) Schematic representation of RNAs a-g containing Tpm1 exon 3 and flanking regulatory elements. (nih.gov)
  • RNAs d-g contain the individual regulatory elements as indicated. (nih.gov)
  • Like the untranslated regions, many of these non-coding RNAs have regulatory roles. (wikipedia.org)
  • But, for many long noncoding RNAs - a seemingly large group of regulatory RNAs that, for example, includes the RNA Xist, which mediates X chromosome inactivation - a poly(A) tail is part of the mature RNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sequencing preparation involved creating libraries by cloning of DNA reverse transcribed from endogenous small RNAs of 21-25 bp size selected by column and gel electrophoresis. (wikipedia.org)
  • This study demonstrated the potential of novel, high-throughput sequencing technologies for the study of small RNAs, and it showed that genomes generate large numbers of small RNAs with plants as particularly rich sources of small RNAs. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was discovered by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and 2-D fingerprinting in an attempt to study the accumulation of small RNAs in E. coli during amino acid starvation. (wikipedia.org)
  • This was based on the observation that Spot42 contains structural features similar to other non-coding RNAs found in E. coli (such as 6S RNA and lambda bacteriophage), as well as features that are typically found in mRNAs (i.e., polypurine sequence followed by AUG, 14 amino acids and an UGA terminator). (wikipedia.org)
  • Nucleotide
  • We confirmed this finding by generating bicistronic luciferase reporter plasmids, and we were able to map a potential internal ribosome entry site-containing region to a 2474-nucleotide region of the intergenic sequence. (ox.ac.uk)
  • RNA interference has an important role in defending cells against parasitic nucleotide sequences - viruses and transposons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fiers' group expanded on their MS2 coat protein work, determining the complete nucleotide-sequence of bacteriophage MS2-RNA (whose genome encodes just four genes in 3569 base pairs [bp]) and Simian virus 40 in 1976 and 1978, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • The name poly(A) tail (for polyadenylic acid tail) reflects the way RNA nucleotides are abbreviated, with a letter for the base the nucleotide contains (A for adenine, C for cytosine, G for guanine and U for uracil). (wikipedia.org)
  • It was for some years unclear if the function of Spot 42 was mediated through the 109 nucleotide RNA itself or if the function was mediated through the 14 amino acids long peptide which is hypothetically encoded from within the sRNA sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetic
  • Extending this work, Marshall Nirenberg and Philip Leder revealed the triplet nature of the genetic code and were able to determine the sequences of 54 out of 64 codons in their experiments. (wikipedia.org)
  • While the process of artificial engineering of nucleic acid ligands is highly interesting to biology and biotechnology, the notion of aptamers in the natural world had yet to be uncovered until 2002 when two groups led by Ronald Breaker and Evgeny Nudler discovered a nucleic acid-based genetic regulatory element (which was named riboswitch) that possesses similar molecular recognition properties to the artificially made aptamers. (wikipedia.org)
  • tRNA
  • This process of translation of codons into amino acids requires two other types of RNA: Transfer RNA (tRNA), that mediates recognition of the codon and provides the corresponding amino acid, and ribosomal RNA (rRNA), that is the central component of the ribosome's protein-manufacturing machinery. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amino acids are selected, collected, and carried to the ribosome by transfer RNA (tRNA) molecules, which enter one part of the ribosome and bind to the messenger RNA chain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sanger
  • The refinement of the Plus and Minus method resulted in the chain-termination, or Sanger method (see below), which formed the basis of the techniques of DNA sequencing, genome mapping, data storage, and bioinformatic analysis most widely used in the following quarter-century of research. (wikipedia.org)
  • For their groundbreaking work in the sequencing of nucleic acids, Gilbert and Sanger shared half the 1980 Nobel Prize in chemistry with Paul Berg (recombinant DNA). (wikipedia.org)
  • Next-generation sequencing eliminates the need for sequence specific hybridization probes required in DNA microarray analysis as well as laborious cloning methods required in the Sanger sequencing method. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • We employed ribonucleic acid sequencing (RNA-seq) technology to identify genes relevant to induced rabbit aneurysm biology and compare these with genes related to human intracranial aneurysms to identify genes of potential clinical interest. (ahajournals.org)
  • Later on, preQ1 riboswitch was identified as a conserved sequence on the 5' UTR of genes in many gram-positive bacteria and was proved to be associated with synthesis of preQ1. (wikipedia.org)
  • RNAP will preferentially release its RNA transcript at specific DNA sequences encoded at the end of genes, which are known as terminators. (wikipedia.org)
  • Expression
  • Gene expression is regulated through the integrated action of many cis-regulatory elements, including core promoters, enhancers, silencers, and insulators. (oregonstate.edu)
  • eukaryotic
  • The first complete genome sequence of an eukaryotic organelle, the human mitochondrion (16,568 bp, about 16.6 kb [kilobase]), was reported in 1981, and the first chloroplast genomes followed in 1986. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1992, the first eukaryotic chromosome, chromosome III of brewer's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (315 kb) was sequenced. (wikipedia.org)
  • genome
  • The advent of these technologies resulted in a rapid intensification in the scope and speed of completion of genome sequencing projects. (wikipedia.org)
  • downstream
  • The gene encoding GPR41 is located immediately downstream of a related gene encoding GPR40, a receptor for long chain fatty acids. (ox.ac.uk)
  • cleavage
  • The most well-studied outcome is post-transcriptional gene silencing, which occurs when the guide strand pairs with a complementary sequence in a messenger RNA molecule and induces cleavage by Argonaute 2 (Ago2), the catalytic component of the RISC. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the same year Walter Gilbert and Allan Maxam of Harvard University independently developed the Maxam-Gilbert method (also known as the chemical method) of DNA sequencing, involving the preferential cleavage of DNA at known bases, a less efficient method. (wikipedia.org)
  • The polyadenylation signal - the sequence motif recognised by the RNA cleavage complex - varies between groups of eukaryotes. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1972
  • In 1972, Walter Fiers and his team at the Laboratory of Molecular Biology of the University of Ghent (Ghent, Belgium) were the first to determine the sequence of a gene: the gene for Bacteriophage MS2 coat protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • While preQ1 was first discovered as an anticodon sequence of tRNAs from E.coli in 1972, preQ1 riboswitch was not first found until 2004 and recognized even later. (wikipedia.org)
  • correlation
  • Considering that not all DNA analogs of RNA aptamers show functionality, the correlation between DNA and RNA sequence and their structure and function requires further investigation. (wikipedia.org)
  • motifs
  • Two key types of elements affect repression of exon 3 splicing: binding sites for polypyrimidine tract-binding protein (PTB) and additional negative regulatory elements consisting of clusters of UGC or CUG motifs. (nih.gov)
  • consensus
  • dnaMATE calculates a consensus melting temperature (Tm) for any given short DNA sequence (16-30 nts) based on three independent thermodynamic data tables. (bioinformatics.ca)
  • Exons
  • Historically, exons are considered the coding sequence and introns are considered the "junk" DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Depending on the needs of the cell, regulatory mechanisms choose which exons, and sometimes introns, to join together. (wikipedia.org)
  • miRNAs
  • Although large numbers of miRNAs have been cloned and sequenced, methods for analyzing their targets are far from perfect. (springer.com)
  • Methods exist that can predict the likely binding sites of miRNAs in target transcripts using sequence alignment, thermodynamics or machine learning approaches. (springer.com)
  • Applied Biosystems SOLiD sequencing platform has also been used to examine the prognostic value of miRNAs in detecting human breast cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • introns
  • introns, 5′ and 3′ UTRs in grey) has cis-acting localization elements in its primary sequence. (nih.gov)