• arteries
  • The arteries of the fourth arch, which project between the nerves of the fourth and sixth arches, become the left-sided arch of the aorta and the right subclavian artery. (wikipedia.org)
  • During growth, these arteries descend into their ultimate positions in the chest, creating the elongated recurrent paths. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sensory
  • Symptoms of sensory nerve damage include: chronic coughing, the feeling of having a lump in the throat (globus sensation), hypersensitivity or abnormal sensation, spasms of the vocal folds (laryngospasms), dysphagia, pain from vocal use, and voice loss in high pitch ranges. (wikipedia.org)
  • Besides giving some output to various organs, the vagus nerve comprises between 80% and 90% of afferent nerves mostly conveying sensory information about the state of the body's organs to the central nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • The sensory ganglia are directly correspondent to dorsal root ganglia of spinal nerves and are known as cranial sensory ganglia. (wikipedia.org)
  • right subcla
  • The right and left nerves are not symmetrical, with the left nerve looping under the aortic arch, and the right nerve looping under the right subclavian artery then traveling upwards. (wikipedia.org)
  • thorax
  • The left vagus nerve enters the thorax between left common carotid artery and left subclavian artery and descends on the aortic arch. (wikipedia.org)
  • dorsal
  • Minor injuries can affect the second and third dorsal area in such a manner that the lymph patches concerned with coordination become either atrophic or relatively nonfunctioning. (wikipedia.org)
  • visual nerve identification
  • These rates did not differ much from those reported for visual nerve identification without the use of IONM. (springer.com)
  • Six studies with more than 100 nerves at risk (NAR) each evaluated RLNPR by contrasting IONM with visual nerve identification only. (springer.com)
  • Apart from navigating the surgeon through challenging anatomies, IONM may lend itself as a routine adjunct to the gold standard of visual nerve identification. (springer.com)
  • skull
  • Incan surgeons learned to avoid areas of the head that would cause injury, using a scraping method on the skull that would cause less trauma. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the brain is carefully removed from the skull the nerves are typically visible in their numeric order, with the exception of the last, CN XII, which appears to emerge rostrally to (above) CN XI. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are many holes in the skull called "foramina" by which the nerves can exit the skull. (wikipedia.org)
  • neck
  • Upon leaving the medulla oblongata between the pyramid and the inferior cerebellar peduncle, the vagus nerve extends through the jugular foramen, then passes into the carotid sheath between the internal carotid artery and the internal jugular vein down to the neck, chest, and abdomen, where it contributes to the innervation of the viscera, reaching all the way to the colon. (wikipedia.org)
  • The vagus nerve supplies motor parasympathetic fibres to all the organs (except the adrenal glands), from the neck down to the second segment of the transverse colon. (wikipedia.org)
  • Latin
  • Because Latin was the lingua franca (common language) of the study of Anatomy when the nerves were first documented, recorded, and discussed, many nerves maintain Latin or Greek names, including the trochlear nerve (IV), named according to its structure, as it supplies a muscle that attaches to a pulley (Greek: trochlea). (wikipedia.org)
  • The trigeminal nerve (V) is named in accordance with its three components (Latin: tri-geminus meaning triplets), and the vagus nerve (X) is named for its wandering course (Latin: vagus). (wikipedia.org)
  • occur
  • Injury to teeth, laceration of palate, hematoma and laceration of tongue or lips may occur during introduction of the laryngoscopes. (wikipedia.org)