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  • occur
  • Temporary hoarseness, voice tiring, and weakness can occur when one or more of the nerves are irritated during the operation or because of inflammation that occurs after the surgery. (umms.org)
  • Anatomy of right recurrent nerve node: why does early metastasis of esophageal cancer occur in it. (springer.com)
  • Injury to teeth, laceration of palate, hematoma and laceration of tongue or lips may occur during introduction of the laryngoscopes. (wikipedia.org)
  • arteries
  • The arteries of the fourth arch, which project between the nerves of the fourth and sixth arches, become the left-sided arch of the aorta and the right subclavian artery. (wikipedia.org)
  • During growth, these arteries descend into their ultimate positions in the chest, creating the elongated recurrent paths. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sensory
  • Besides giving some output to various organs, the vagus nerve comprises between 80% and 90% of afferent nerves mostly conveying sensory information about the state of the body's organs to the central nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • The sensory ganglia are directly correspondent to dorsal root ganglia of spinal nerves and are known as cranial sensory ganglia. (wikipedia.org)
  • right subcla
  • The right and left nerves are not symmetrical, with the left nerve looping under the aortic arch, and the right nerve looping under the right subclavian artery then traveling upwards. (wikipedia.org)
  • thorax
  • The left vagus nerve enters the thorax between left common carotid artery and left subclavian artery and descends on the aortic arch. (wikipedia.org)
  • optic nerves
  • The terminal nerves, olfactory nerves (I) and optic nerves (II) emerge from the cerebrum or forebrain, and the remaining ten pairs arise from the brainstem, which is the lower part of the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • dorsal
  • Minor injuries can affect the second and third dorsal area in such a manner that the lymph patches concerned with coordination become either atrophic or relatively nonfunctioning. (wikipedia.org)
  • functional
  • The technology of IONM is safe and reliable, and this technique is an important adjunct in nerve dissection and functional neural integrity. (ovid.com)
  • visual nerve identification
  • These rates did not differ much from those reported for visual nerve identification without the use of IONM. (springer.com)
  • Six studies with more than 100 nerves at risk (NAR) each evaluated RLNPR by contrasting IONM with visual nerve identification only. (springer.com)
  • Apart from navigating the surgeon through challenging anatomies, IONM may lend itself as a routine adjunct to the gold standard of visual nerve identification. (springer.com)
  • esophagus
  • A good knowledge of the relations between the esophagus and the stomach in vascular supply and anatomical adjacency extensively contributes to the access routing and anatomical injury reduction associated with thoracoscopic esophagectomy. (springer.com)
  • Aortic
  • A left nonrecurrent inferior laryngeal nerve is even more uncommon, requiring the aortic arch be on the right side, accompanied by an arterial variant which prevents the nerve from being drawn into the chest by the left subclavian. (wikipedia.org)
  • diseases
  • Mass General's Voice Center Research Laboratories are designed to develop novel technologies, biomaterials, devices, and surgical tools for advancing the diagnosis, management and treatment of laryngeal diseases and pathologies that affect voice. (massgeneral.org)
  • skull
  • Incan surgeons learned to avoid areas of the head that would cause injury, using a scraping method on the skull that would cause less trauma. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Al-Andalus from 936 to 1013 AD, Al-Zahrawi evaluated patients and performed surgical treatments of head injuries, skull fractures, spinal injuries, hydrocephalus, subdural effusions and headache. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the brain is carefully removed from the skull the nerves are typically visible in their numeric order, with the exception of the last, CN XII, which appears to emerge rostrally to (above) CN XI. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are many holes in the skull called "foramina" by which the nerves can exit the skull. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anatomy
  • Because Latin was the lingua franca (common language) of the study of Anatomy when the nerves were first documented, recorded, and discussed, many nerves maintain Latin or Greek names, including the trochlear nerve (IV), named according to its structure, as it supplies a muscle that attaches to a pulley (Greek: trochlea). (wikipedia.org)
  • Latin
  • The trigeminal nerve (V) is named in accordance with its three components (Latin: tri-geminus meaning triplets), and the vagus nerve (X) is named for its wandering course (Latin: vagus). (wikipedia.org)
  • carotid
  • Upon leaving the medulla oblongata between the pyramid and the inferior cerebellar peduncle, the vagus nerve extends through the jugular foramen, then passes into the carotid sheath between the internal carotid artery and the internal jugular vein down to the neck, chest, and abdomen, where it contributes to the innervation of the viscera, reaching all the way to the colon. (wikipedia.org)
  • Opposite
  • Miyauchi A, Yokozawa T, Kobayashi K, Hirai K, Matsuzuka F, Kuma K. Opposite ansa cervicalis to recurrent laryngeal nerve anastomosis to restore phonation in patients with advanced thyroid cancer. (springer.com)
  • If the function is on the opposite side to the origin of the nerve, this is known as a contralateral function. (wikipedia.org)
  • parasympathetic
  • The vagus nerve (/ˈveɪɡəs/ VAY-gəs), historically cited as the pneumogastric nerve, is the tenth cranial nerve or CN X, and interfaces with parasympathetic control of the heart, lungs, and digestive tract. (wikipedia.org)
  • The vagus nerve supplies motor parasympathetic fibres to all the organs (except the adrenal glands), from the neck down to the second segment of the transverse colon. (wikipedia.org)