• arteries
  • The arteries of the fourth arch, which project between the nerves of the fourth and sixth arches, become the left-sided arch of the aorta and the right subclavian artery. (wikipedia.org)
  • During growth, these arteries descend into their ultimate positions in the chest, creating the elongated recurrent paths. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hoarseness
  • Temporary hoarseness, voice tiring, and weakness can occur when one or more of the nerves are irritated during the operation or because of inflammation that occurs after the surgery. (umms.org)
  • A unilateral injury of the nerve typically results in hoarseness caused by a reduced mobility of one of the vocal folds. (wikipedia.org)
  • right subcla
  • The right and left nerves are not symmetrical, with the left nerve looping under the aortic arch, and the right nerve looping under the right subclavian artery then traveling upwards. (wikipedia.org)
  • thorax
  • The left vagus nerve enters the thorax between left common carotid artery and left subclavian artery and descends on the aortic arch. (wikipedia.org)
  • dorsal
  • Minor injuries can affect the second and third dorsal area in such a manner that the lymph patches concerned with coordination become either atrophic or relatively nonfunctioning. (wikipedia.org)
  • neck
  • T or F: malignancy in the neck can affect recurrent laryngeal nerve function. (brainscape.com)
  • Upon leaving the medulla oblongata between the pyramid and the inferior cerebellar peduncle, the vagus nerve extends through the jugular foramen, then passes into the carotid sheath between the internal carotid artery and the internal jugular vein down to the neck, chest, and abdomen, where it contributes to the innervation of the viscera, reaching all the way to the colon. (wikipedia.org)
  • The vagus nerve supplies motor parasympathetic fibres to all the organs (except the adrenal glands), from the neck down to the second segment of the transverse colon. (wikipedia.org)
  • Intraoperative
  • As a risk minimization tool, intraoperative nerve monitoring (IONM) has been introduced to verify RLN function integrity intraoperatively. (springer.com)
  • Aortic
  • A left nonrecurrent inferior laryngeal nerve is even more uncommon, requiring the aortic arch be on the right side, accompanied by an arterial variant which prevents the nerve from being drawn into the chest by the left subclavian. (wikipedia.org)
  • surgical
  • Mass General's Voice Center Research Laboratories are designed to develop novel technologies, biomaterials, devices, and surgical tools for advancing the diagnosis, management and treatment of laryngeal diseases and pathologies that affect voice. (massgeneral.org)
  • In Al-Andalus from 936 to 1013 AD, Al-Zahrawi evaluated patients and performed surgical treatments of head injuries, skull fractures, spinal injuries, hydrocephalus, subdural effusions and headache. (wikipedia.org)
  • occur
  • Injury to teeth, laceration of palate, hematoma and laceration of tongue or lips may occur during introduction of the laryngoscopes. (wikipedia.org)
  • skull
  • Incan surgeons learned to avoid areas of the head that would cause injury, using a scraping method on the skull that would cause less trauma. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the brain is carefully removed from the skull the nerves are typically visible in their numeric order, with the exception of the last, CN XII, which appears to emerge rostrally to (above) CN XI. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are many holes in the skull called "foramina" by which the nerves can exit the skull. (wikipedia.org)
  • Latin
  • Because Latin was the lingua franca (common language) of the study of Anatomy when the nerves were first documented, recorded, and discussed, many nerves maintain Latin or Greek names, including the trochlear nerve (IV), named according to its structure, as it supplies a muscle that attaches to a pulley (Greek: trochlea). (wikipedia.org)
  • The trigeminal nerve (V) is named in accordance with its three components (Latin: tri-geminus meaning triplets), and the vagus nerve (X) is named for its wandering course (Latin: vagus). (wikipedia.org)