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  • NMDARs
  • Glutamate induced excitotoxic injury through over-activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) plays a critical role in the development of many neurodegenerative diseases. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Pharmacological assessments demonstrated that CamKIIαNampt(-/-) mice also display dysfunction of synaptic GluN2B (NR2B)-containing N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) prior to changes in NMDAR subunit expression. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • EGFR
  • In the present study, Rg3 treatment to A549 human lung adenocarcinoma led to cell death via not only apoptotic pathways but also the downregulation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The sigma-2 receptor is a cytochrome related protein located in the lipid raft that is most commonly associated with P450 proteins, and is coupled with the PGRMC1 complex, EGFR, mTOR, caspases, and various ion channels. (wikipedia.org)
  • The receptor's interaction with EGFR and PGRMC1 proteins allow for sigma-2 receptors to play diverse roles within cell through Ras, PLC, and PI3K singaling. (wikipedia.org)
  • By interacting with EGFR membrane proteins sigma-2 receptors play a role in the regulation of signals further downstream such as PKC and RAF. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor cells
  • Sigma-2 receptors have been found to be highly expressed in proliferating cells, including tumor cells, and to play a role in the differentiation, morphology, and survival of those cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because sigma-2 receptors are highly expressed in tumor cells and are part of the cell proliferation mechanism, PET scans using sigma-2 targeted tracers can reveal if a tumor is proliferating and what its growth rate is. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteins
  • Some ubiquitin-like (UBL) domain-containing proteins are known to play roles in receptor trafficking. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The sigma-2 receptor is found in several areas of the brain, including high densities in the cerebellum, motor cortex, hippocampus, and substantia nigra, though it shows no homology with other proteins present in brain tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • binds
  • The release of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) from damaged cells binds to and activates both P2X7 receptors on macrophages of the immune system, and P2X3 receptors of nociceptors of the nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • neurotransmitters
  • When this effect ceases due to metabolism of cocaine, depletion of associated neurotransmitters, and receptor down-regulation (tachyphylaxis), the cocaine user may experience dysphoria, or a "crash" after the initial high. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • The control of target gene expression by nuclear receptors requires the recruitment of multiple cofactors. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The receptor has recently been identified with TMEM97, a protein for which gene and protein sequence is available that had been known to be involved in cholesterol homeostasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • bind
  • Interferon type I: All type I IFNs bind to a specific cell surface receptor complex known as the IFN-α/β receptor (IFNAR) that consists of IFNAR1 and IFNAR2 chains. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, the binding site of neurosteroids in the GABAA receptor is not known and barbiturates bind at a beta subunit that is distinct from the benzodiazepine binding site. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor
  • Colocalization of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR-2) and platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta (PDGF-R β ) reduces pericyte ensheathment of tumor vessels. (hindawi.com)
  • type
  • Expression of type I and III IFNs can be induced in virtually all cell types upon recognition of viral components, especially nucleic acids, by cytoplasmic and endosomal receptors, whereas type II interferon is induced by cytokines such as IL-12, and its expression is restricted to immune cells such as T cells and NK cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutations in sigma-1 receptor have been associated with distal spinal muscular atrophy type 2. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • NIH/3T3 and human hepatoma (HepG2) cells were transfected with expression vectors for PPARs and retinoid × receptors, and PPAR responsive element reporter vector. (biomedcentral.com)
  • cell
  • The tail fibres are also important in recognizing host cell surface receptors, so they determine if a bacterium is within the phage's host range. (wikipedia.org)
  • Upon binding, it triggers the GABAA receptor to open its chloride channel to allow chlorine ions into the neuron, making the cell hyperpolarized and less likely to fire. (wikipedia.org)
  • binding site
  • In bacteria The promoter is recognized by RNA polymerase and an associated sigma factor, which in turn are often brought to the promoter DNA by an activator protein's binding to its own DNA binding site nearby. (wikipedia.org)
  • acts
  • Clathrin coats contain both clathrin (acts as a scaffold) and adaptor complexes that link clathrin to receptors in coated vesicles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most TCAs act as monoamine reuptake inhibitors, but opipramol does not, and instead acts primarily as a sigma receptor agonist. (wikipedia.org)