• Mice
  • An in vivo role for GH in murine adipogenesis is supported by significantly decreased epididymal fat depot size in young GH receptor-deleted mice, before manifestation of the lipolytic actions of GH. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Ghrhr(lit/lit) mice deficient in the GHRH receptor gene are resistant to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. (nih.gov)
  • prolactin receptor
  • Placental lactogen I and II were identified as prolactin-like molecules that can bind to prolactin receptor with high affinity and mimic the actions of prolactin. (wikipedia.org)
  • hPL has been found to bind to the prolactin receptor with equal affinity to that of prolactin in rabbit milk fat gobule membrane, and hPL and prolactin have been found to possess very similar lactogenic activity in vitro in mouse and rat mammary gland explants. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the relative affinities of hPL and prolactin for the human prolactin receptor have yet to be published and the effects of hPL on normal human mammary epithelial tissue have not yet been investigated, and so a definitive role of hPL in human mammary gland development during pregnancy has not been established at present. (wikipedia.org)
  • Humans
  • This occurs because when the ligand binds to the receptors, a conformational change occurs in them that potentially blocks the proteolytic activity of T.A.C.E. In humans, studies have shown that alternative splicing of the GHR gene can lead to increased rates of proteolysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • hormones
  • Such activity is only one of many functions that they have (such as neurotransmitter and receptor antagonist roles), and they are not always called hormones, although many are neuropeptides or neurosteroids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Androstenediol Androstenedione Dihydrotestosterone Prasterone (dehydroepiandrosterone DHEA) Testosterone Metabolites and isomers of endogenous anabolic androgenic steroids, including: Clenbuterol Selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) Tibolone Zeranol Zilpaterol Certain peptide hormones increase bulk, strength, and oxygen-carrying red blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Examples are cytokines and hormones that bind to specific receptors on the surface of their target cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • antagonists
  • We believe that this model will apply to most if not all members of the class I cytokine receptor family, and will be useful in the design of small antagonists and agonists of therapeutic value. (nih.gov)
  • JAK2
  • In the present study, we describe a model for activation of the tyrosine kinase Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) by the GH receptor homodimer based on biochemical data and molecular dynamics simulations. (nih.gov)
  • ligand
  • Recent studies have revealed that many of these receptors exist as constitutive dimers rather than being dimerized as a consequence of ligand binding, which has necessitated a new paradigm for describing their activation process. (nih.gov)
  • Binding of the bivalent ligand reorientates and rotates the receptor subunits, resulting in a transition from a form with parallel TMDs to one where the TMDs separate at the point of entry into the cytoplasm. (nih.gov)
  • This extracellular domain physically binds GH in the receptor-ligand interaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • transmembrane
  • They do this by coupling their single transmembrane domain (TMD) receptors to cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases, either as homodimers or heterodimers. (nih.gov)
  • interaction
  • Transition of the GH receptor TMDsThe interaction of the GH receptor TMDs in the inactive parallel State 1 and active crossover State 2 are shown. (nih.gov)
  • The structure includes four helices necessary for functional interaction with the GH receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • peroxisome
  • Only Stat5a transfection increased the expression of adipogenic markers peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, CCAAT enhancer binding protein (C/EBP)alpha, and adipose protein 2/fatty acid-binding protein in response to GH, as determined by quantitative RT-PCR. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Constitutively active Stat5a was also able to increase the expression of transcripts for C/EBPalpha to similar levels as GH, and of C/EBPbeta, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, and adipose protein 2/fatty acid-binding protein transcripts to a lesser extent. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Metabolic modulators including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARδ) agonists (e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • helices
  • Using coarse grain models to model the approach of two GH receptor TMD helices in DPPC, it was observed that the helices first converge at their C-termini when their centres of mass are approximately 20 Å apart. (nih.gov)
  • Kinase
  • This movement slides the pseudokinase inhibitory domain of one JAK kinase away from the kinase domain of the other JAK within the receptor dimer-JAK complex, allowing the two kinase domains to interact and trans-activate. (nih.gov)