• antibody
  • This peptide may be used for neutralization and control experiments with the polyclonal antibody that reacts with this product and the human GR, catalog ab3578 . (abcam.com)
  • Using a solution with equal weights per unit volume of peptide and corresponding antibody will yield a solution with a large molar excess of peptide that is able to competitively bind the antibody. (abcam.com)
  • genes
  • Two receptors where thereafter discovered and named FPR1 and FPR2 based on the similarity of their genes' predicted amino acid sequence to that of FPR rather than on any ability to bind or be activated by the formyl oligopeptides. (wikipedia.org)
  • Confusingly, there are two nomenclatures for FPR receptors and their genes, the first one used, FPR, FPR1, and FPR2 and its replacement (which corresponds directly to these three respective receptors and their genes), FPR1, FPR2, and FPR3. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mice express no less than 7 Fpr receptors and encoding genes that are homologous to FPR1 although no single one of these FPRs appears to perform exactly the same functions as any one of the human FPRs. (wikipedia.org)
  • oligopeptides
  • Methods and compositions are provided for treating several acute disease states associated with smooth muscle cell proliferation as well as the chronic process of atherogenesis utilizing oligopeptides corresponding to regions of the PDGF receptor protein. (google.ca)
  • The oligopeptides can be used to block PDGF binding and activation for numerous applications, and can serve as immunogens to raise receptor-specific antibodies. (google.ca)
  • Studies conducted in the 1970s found that a series of N-Formylmethionine-containing oligopeptides, including the most potent and best known member of this series, N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP or fMet-Leu-Phe), stimulated rabbit and human neutrophils by an apparent receptor-dependent mechanism to migrate in a directional pattern in classical laboratory assays of chemotaxis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Further studies defined a receptor for the N-formyl oligopeptides, formyl peptide receptor (FPR), so named based on its ability to bind and become activated by the oligopeptides. (wikipedia.org)
  • Early studies suggested that these formyl oligopeptides operated by a Receptor (biochemistry) mechanism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Further studies cloned a receptor for these N-formyl oligopeptides, FPR1. (wikipedia.org)
  • The latter two receptors were subsequently found to have very different specificities for the formyl oligopeptides and very different functions than those for FPR1. (wikipedia.org)
  • hormone
  • Belongs to the nuclear hormone receptor family. (abcam.com)
  • A variety of stimuli have been shown to regulate cellular ANP receptor levels, including hormones (eg, ANP, angiotensin II, glucocorticoids, vasopressin, endothelin, and thyroid-stimulating hormone) 15 16 17 18 19 and pharmacological agents with putative intracellular signaling capacity (eg, phorbol esters and cGMP). (ahajournals.org)
  • Another example is the μ-opioid receptor (MOR), which is bound and activated by the opioid peptide hormone β-endorphin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Kisspeptin is involved in the regulation of endocrine function and the onset of puberty, with activation of the kisspeptin receptor triggering release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), and release of kisspeptin itself being inhibited by oestradiol but enhanced by GnRH. (wikipedia.org)
  • The GLP-1R is a G protein-coupled receptor that is dependent on glucose and GLP-1 is a peptide hormone that acts directly on the beta cell to stimulate insulin secretion by activating signal transduction when glucose is present. (wikipedia.org)
  • FPR3
  • Compared to FPR1 and FPR2, FPR3 is highly phosphorylated (a signal for receptor inactivation and internalization) and more localized to small intracellular vesicles. (wikipedia.org)
  • This suggests that FPR3 rapidly internalizes after binding its ligands and thereby may serve as a "decoy" receptor to reduce the binding of its ligands to FRP1 and FRP2 receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • FPR receptors are widely distributed throughout mammalian species with the FPR1, FPR2, and FPR3 paralogs, based on phylogenetic analysis, originating from a common ancestor and early duplication of FPR1 and FPR2/FPR3 splitting with FPR3 originating from the latest duplication event near the origin of primates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite its homology to FPR1, FPR3 is unresponsive to many FPR1-stimulating formyl peptides including FMLP. (wikipedia.org)
  • F2L is a naturally occurring acylated peptide derived from the N-terminal sequence of heme-binding protein 1 by cathepsin D cleavage that potently stimulates chemotaxis through FPR3 in monocytes and monocyte-derived dendritic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • FPR2 and FPR3 are termed formyl peptide receptors base on the similarities of their amino acid sequences to that of FPR1 rather than any preferences for binding formyl peptides. (wikipedia.org)
  • Indeed, FPR2 prefers a very different set of ligands and has some very different functions than FPR1 while FPR3 does not bind FMLP or many other N-formyl peptides which bind to FPR1 or FPR2. (wikipedia.org)
  • hormones
  • Gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) regulates numerous functions of the gastrointestinal and central nervous systems, including release of gastrointestinal hormones, smooth muscle cell contraction, and epithelial cell proliferation and is a potent mitogen for neoplastic tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • FPR1 and FPR2
  • In the absence of crystal structures for the FPRs, site-directed mutagenesis, computer-aided ligand docking and structural simulation have led to the identification of amino acids within FPR1 and FPR2 that interact with several formyl peptides. (mdpi.com)
  • inhibition
  • Thrombin treatment effected a dose- and time-dependent reduction in ANP receptor activity (maximal 70% to 80% inhibition) in cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells. (ahajournals.org)
  • The inhibition was largely confined to the type C receptor population, in that thrombin had no effect on maximal type A receptor-linked cGMP accumulation. (ahajournals.org)
  • Pretreatment of endothelial cells with cycloheximide did not completely prevent the thrombin-dependent inhibition, and thrombin did not effect a reduction in type C receptor mRNA levels, findings that argue for a postsynthetic inhibitory locus. (ahajournals.org)
  • The inhibition of receptor activity was effectively irreversible in that suspension of protein synthesis blocked the recovery of receptor density on the cell surface. (ahajournals.org)