• Gene
  • Buck CR, Martinez HJ, Chao MV, Black IB (1988) Differential expression of the nerve growth factor receptor gene in multiple brain areas. (springer.com)
  • In 2008, his genetic research, which showed an association between serotonin and dopamine receptor gene polymorphisms and certain love traits, was awarded with the International Zdenek Klein Award for Human Ethology from the Charles University in Prague, Czech Republic. (wikipedia.org)
  • Modern discussions of horse coat color genetics are based on the distinction between "red" and "non-red" coats, a factor determined by a single gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mice whose paternally inherited Grb10 gene is inactivated are more aggressive while those whose maternally inherited allele is inactivated exhibit foetal overgrowth and are significantly bigger than wild-type litter-mates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fungi
  • Mating in fungi is a complex process governed by mating types. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mating between isogamous fungi may consist only of a transfer of nuclei from one cell to another. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fungi within Zygomycota form progametangia with suspensors during mating Fungi within Ascomycota form ascogonium and antheridium with trichogyne bridge Typical mating fusion of two compatible monokaryons in Basidiomycota A zygomycete hypha grows towards a compatible mate and they both form a bridge, called a progametangia, by joining at the hyphal tips via plasmogamy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Red realized early on there were fungi that differed in aspects of compatibility and attributed these to what he called incompatibility factors A and B, further differentiating α and β in each. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some fungi have two mating types, termed bipolar, and others including some Red worked on, have thousands of mating types due to a more complicated mating type determination system. (wikipedia.org)
  • After working at Oak Ridge he took a position at the University of Chicago where he resumed efforts to determine the numbers and distributions of mating types from globally distributed fungi. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although different sexes are not present within fungi, sexual selection can act due to the presence of different sex roles as well as different mating types as most fungi are hermaphroditic. (wikipedia.org)
  • Competition can occur within fungi as it does in plants and animals if an inequality in the ability to access one sex role or mating type is present. (wikipedia.org)
  • GPCR
  • Other families of GPCR make use of large N-terminal domains and exofacial domains (e.g., gonadotropin receptors and Frizzleds) that are essential for signal propagation, whereas some seem to depend mostly on the N-terminal domain itself for receptor binding and activation by agonist (e.g., glutamate metabotropic receptors). (aspetjournals.org)
  • The cytoplasmic domains of a GPCR include three or four (in the case of palmitoylated GPCRs such as the β 2 -adrenergic receptor and rhodopsin) intracellular loops (iLoops 1-4) and a C-terminal sequence of variable length (70+ residues for β 2 -adrenergic, 20+ residues in Frizzled-1, etc. (aspetjournals.org)
  • opposite matin
  • Haploids mate when two cells of opposite mating types signal to each other using reciprocal pheromones and receptors, polarize and grow toward each other, and eventually fuse to form a single diploid. (genetics.org)
  • Homothallic species are able to mate with themselves, while in heterothallic species only isolates of opposite mating types can mate. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • These factors regulate the expression of mating-type-specific genes, many of which are involved with the production and detection of the pheromones that yeast cells use to signal to one another. (genetics.org)
  • These phenotypic differences between a and α cells are due to a different set of genes being actively transcribed and repressed in cells of the two mating types. (wikipedia.org)
  • Researchers led by Dr Enzo Emanuele have traced the genetic component of cellulite to particular polymorphisms in the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and hypoxia-inducible factor 1A (HIF1a) genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • autocrine
  • Autocrine signals are produced by the target cell, are secreted, and affect the target cell itself via receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • They act as autocrine or paracrine factors with their target cells present in the immediate vicinity of the site of their secretion. (wikipedia.org)
  • ligand
  • The literature highlights more than 100 examples using this strategy to address issues such as the molecular nature of the ligand binding domain, the roles of specific transmembrane spanning segments (TMS), and the nature of the cytoplasmic domains in defining downstream signaling and receptor regulation/trafficking ( Table 1 ). (aspetjournals.org)
  • The ligand binding domain of GPCRs is not uniform with respect to the role of the N terminus, because for many GPCRs (e.g., adrenergic and serotonergic receptors), the ligand binding occurs somewhere within in the lipid bilayer ( Tota and Strader, 1990 ), although the N terminus and exofacial "loops" must contribute to the forces that organize the binding pocket for the ligand in these receptors. (aspetjournals.org)
  • 1990
  • Bouchara J, Tronchin G, Annaix V, Robert R, Senet J (1990) Laminin receptors on Candida albicans germ tubes. (springer.com)
  • Arakawa Y, Sendtner M, Thoenen H (1990) Survival effect of ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) on chick embryonic motoneurons in culture: comparison with other neurotrophic factors and cytokines. (springer.com)
  • crassa
  • Bistis GN (1981) Chemotropic interactions between trichogynes and conidia of opposite mating-type in Neurospora crassa . (springer.com)
  • Like other Ascomycetes, N. crassa has two mating types that, in this case, are symbolized by A and a. (wikipedia.org)
  • type
  • Yeast cells expressing the pheromone and receptor of the opposite mating type are capable of forming zygotes with cells of their original mating type. (genetics.org)
  • The isolation of nerve growth factor (NGF) proved that such a factor could indeed promote the growth of a specific type of neuron (Levi- Montalcini and Hamburger 1953), and the importance of NGF in neuronal development was indicated in experiments showing that specific antibodies against NGF could interfere with the normal development of dorsal root ganglion neurons (Johnson et al. (springer.com)
  • The mating of yeast only occurs between haploids, which can be either the a or α (alpha) mating type and thus display simple sexual differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sexual fruiting bodies (perithecia) can only be formed when two cells of different mating type come together (see Figure). (wikipedia.org)
  • There is no evident morphological difference between the A and a mating type strains. (wikipedia.org)
  • The products of these nuclear divisions (still in pairs of unlike mating type, i.e. (wikipedia.org)
  • Through the influence of Red's work, it is now understood that mating-type identity is determined by regions of the genome called mating type or MAT loci. (wikipedia.org)
  • This inequality could result in increased competition for access to the other mating type. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • A secreting cell acts on nearby target cells by discharging molecules of a local regulator (a growth factor, for example) into the extracellular fluid. (coursehero.com)
  • Neurotrophic factors (NTFs) are molecules which act to promote the differentiation of neurons and to maintain their phenotype. (springer.com)
  • types
  • S. cerevisiae comes in two mating types , a and α . (yeastgenome.org)
  • They contain the ability to self-fertilize (homothallism) or more commonly require hyphae from two individuals of different mating types to make contact and fertilize (heterothallism). (wikipedia.org)
  • nerve growth
  • Regulation by nerve growth factor and other agents. (springer.com)
  • Bothwell M (1991) Tissue localisation of nerve growth factor and nerve growth factor receptors. (springer.com)
  • He has studied the biochemical basis of romantic interpersonal attraction and identified the neurotrophin nerve growth factor (NGF) as a key biochemical mediator of falling in love. (wikipedia.org)
  • Identification of the neurotrophin nerve growth factor (NGF) as a biochemical mediator of falling in love in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1988
  • Anderson KJ, Dam D, Lee S, Cotman CW (1988) Basic fibroblast growth factor prevents death of lesioned cholinergic neurons in vivo. (springer.com)
  • inflammatory
  • N-Acylpiperidines of general structure ##STR1## are tachykinin receptor antagonists useful in the treatment of inflammatory diseases, pain or migraine, asthma and emesis. (patents.com)
  • form
  • Identification of sRAGE, the soluble form of the receptor for advanced glycation endproducts, as related to atherosclerosis, dementia, and longevity. (wikipedia.org)