• ligands
  • The transcription factor PPARγ is activated by several lipid ligands, but agonists derived from physiologic signaling pathways are unknown. (pnas.org)
  • Fungi
  • Mating in fungi is a complex process governed by mating types. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mating between isogamous fungi may consist only of a transfer of nuclei from one cell to another. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fungi within Zygomycota form progametangia with suspensors during mating Fungi within Ascomycota form ascogonium and antheridium with trichogyne bridge Typical mating fusion of two compatible monokaryons in Basidiomycota A zygomycete hypha grows towards a compatible mate and they both form a bridge, called a progametangia, by joining at the hyphal tips via plasmogamy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Red realized early on there were fungi that differed in aspects of compatibility and attributed these to what he called incompatibility factors A and B, further differentiating α and β in each. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some fungi have two mating types, termed bipolar, and others including some Red worked on, have thousands of mating types due to a more complicated mating type determination system. (wikipedia.org)
  • After working at Oak Ridge he took a position at the University of Chicago where he resumed efforts to determine the numbers and distributions of mating types from globally distributed fungi. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although different sexes are not present within fungi, sexual selection can act due to the presence of different sex roles as well as different mating types as most fungi are hermaphroditic. (wikipedia.org)
  • Competition can occur within fungi as it does in plants and animals if an inequality in the ability to access one sex role or mating type is present. (wikipedia.org)
  • GPCR
  • Other families of GPCR make use of large N-terminal domains and exofacial domains (e.g., gonadotropin receptors and Frizzleds) that are essential for signal propagation, whereas some seem to depend mostly on the N-terminal domain itself for receptor binding and activation by agonist (e.g., glutamate metabotropic receptors). (aspetjournals.org)
  • The cytoplasmic domains of a GPCR include three or four (in the case of palmitoylated GPCRs such as the β 2 -adrenergic receptor and rhodopsin) intracellular loops (iLoops 1-4) and a C-terminal sequence of variable length (70+ residues for β 2 -adrenergic, 20+ residues in Frizzled-1, etc. (aspetjournals.org)
  • When a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) is activated, Gα dissociates from Gβγ, allowing both subunits to perform their respective downstream signaling effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • ligand
  • The literature highlights more than 100 examples using this strategy to address issues such as the molecular nature of the ligand binding domain, the roles of specific transmembrane spanning segments (TMS), and the nature of the cytoplasmic domains in defining downstream signaling and receptor regulation/trafficking ( Table 1 ). (aspetjournals.org)
  • The ligand binding domain of GPCRs is not uniform with respect to the role of the N terminus, because for many GPCRs (e.g., adrenergic and serotonergic receptors), the ligand binding occurs somewhere within in the lipid bilayer ( Tota and Strader, 1990 ), although the N terminus and exofacial "loops" must contribute to the forces that organize the binding pocket for the ligand in these receptors. (aspetjournals.org)
  • conidium
  • Once a haploid fungus within N. crassa has attracted or has been attracted to a mate of a different mating type, it will develop either a protoperithecium or conidium to sexually fertilize or both structures to self-fertilize. (wikipedia.org)
  • autocrine
  • Autocrine signals are produced by the target cell, are secreted, and affect the target cell itself via receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • They act as autocrine or paracrine factors with their target cells present in the immediate vicinity of the site of their secretion. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein-linked
  • LPA stimulates three G protein-linked, plasma membrane-associated receptors [LPA 1 , LPA 2 , and LPA 3 , formerly edg2, edg4, and edg7 ( 6 )] that recognize extracellular LPA ( 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • crassa
  • Bistis GN (1981) Chemotropic interactions between trichogynes and conidia of opposite mating-type in Neurospora crassa . (springer.com)
  • type
  • There is no evident morphological difference between the A and a mating type strains. (wikipedia.org)
  • The products of these nuclear divisions (still in pairs of unlike mating type, i.e. (wikipedia.org)
  • Through the influence of Red's work, it is now understood that mating-type identity is determined by regions of the genome called mating type or MAT loci. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mice whose paternally inherited Grb10 gene is inactivated are more aggressive while those whose maternally inherited allele is inactivated exhibit foetal overgrowth and are significantly bigger than wild-type litter-mates. (wikipedia.org)
  • The two nuclei then fuse to form a cell containing a diploid nucleus which then undergoes two rounds of meiosis and one mitotic division to ultimately form eight haploid nuclei, four of each mating type. (wikipedia.org)
  • This inequality could result in increased competition for access to the other mating type. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetic
  • In 2008, his genetic research, which showed an association between serotonin and dopamine receptor gene polymorphisms and certain love traits, was awarded with the International Zdenek Klein Award for Human Ethology from the Charles University in Prague, Czech Republic. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic dissection of human mating system and love styles. (wikipedia.org)
  • inflammatory
  • N-Acylpiperidines of general structure ##STR1## are tachykinin receptor antagonists useful in the treatment of inflammatory diseases, pain or migraine, asthma and emesis. (patents.com)
  • form
  • Identification of sRAGE, the soluble form of the receptor for advanced glycation endproducts, as related to atherosclerosis, dementia, and longevity. (wikipedia.org)
  • lipid
  • LPA and novel LPA analogs we made stimulated expression of a PPAR-responsive element reporter and the endogenous PPARγ-controlled gene CD36, and induced monocyte lipid accumulation from oxidized low-density lipoprotein via the CD36 scavenger receptor. (pnas.org)
  • Competition
  • Female intrasexual competition is when females compete with each other over a potential mate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Self-promotion tactics are one of the main strategies that can be used during intrasexual competition for mates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Whilst males may use direct forms of aggression during intrasexual competition females typically compete for access to desired mates through the use of indirect aggression. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the context of intrasexual competition, indirect aggression works to reduce the opportunities the rival may have in securing access to the desired mate to, therefore, increase one's chances of Reproductive success. (wikipedia.org)
  • potential
  • This discrimination comes at a cost: weak mating in situations where all potential partners make less pheromone. (genetics.org)
  • Current flow due to such potential difference further results in a receptor potential that is presynaptic to the sensory fibers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Intersexual selection is where members of a competitive sex appear to show off desirable characteristics in order to get the attention of a potential mate, increasing their chances of being selected as a mate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Intrasexual selection is when members of the same sex compete with each other over a potential mate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Luxury items can indicate attractiveness by emphasising a higher status, which is a factor that potential mates will take into consideration. (wikipedia.org)