• ligand
  • Therefore, A collaboration mechanism between the ET_A and the ET_B receptorS may function in the recognition of ET-1, a typical 'bivalent' ligand. (nii.ac.jp)
  • However, the precursor of NGF, proNGF, is a potent apoptotic ligand for the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75 NTR )-sortilin complex. (jneurosci.org)
  • Ro5-4864 was found to be a potent ligand for the "peripheral benzodiazepine receptor", later renamed to mitochondrial translocator protein 18kDa (TSPO). (wikipedia.org)
  • Estradiol represents the most prolific estrogen ligand receptor in the female body, particularly in non-pregnant females, and is a more effective activator of estrogen receptor function than estrone or estriol. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glutamic
  • Glutamic acid is an α-amino acid with formula C 5H 9O 4N. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glutamic acid is used by almost all living beings in the biosynthesis of proteins, being specified in DNA by the codons GAA or GAG. (wikipedia.org)
  • When glutamic acid is dissolved in water, the amino group (-NH 2) may gain a proton (H+ ), and/or the carboxyl groups may lose protons, depending on the acidity of the medium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although they occur naturally in many foods, the flavor contributions made by glutamic acid and other amino acids were only scientifically identified early in the twentieth century. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1908 Japanese researcher Kikunae Ikeda of the Tokyo Imperial University identified brown crystals left behind after the evaporation of a large amount of kombu broth as glutamic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • He then patented a method of mass-producing a crystalline salt of glutamic acid, monosodium glutamate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glutamic acid is produced on the largest scale of any amino acid, with an estimated annual production of about 1.5 million tons in 2006. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1998
  • The potential for this disease was first recognized in a human case study of temporal lobe epilepsy after the 1987 amnesic shellfish-poisoning event in Quebec, and was characterized as a chronic epileptic syndrome in California sea lions through investigation of a series of domoic acid poisoning cases between 1998 and 2006. (mdpi.com)
  • seizure models induced
  • The mode of seizure propagation was studied using generalized seizure models induced by a microinjection of kainic acid (KA) into unilateral mesencephalic reticular formation (MRF) or pontine reticular formation (PRF) of unrestrained cats or rats. (nii.ac.jp)
  • presynaptic
  • Mouse neuromuscular junction showing perisynaptic Schwann cells (red), the presynaptic terminal (green), and postsynaptic nACh receptors (blue). (jneurosci.org)
  • Presynaptic kainate receptors have been implicated in inhibitory neurotransmission by modulating release of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA through a presynaptic mechanism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Kainate receptors have both presynaptic and postsynaptic actions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Activating kainate receptors in the presynaptic cell can affect the amount of neurotransmitters that are released This effect may occur quickly and last for a long time, and the effects of repetitive stimulation of KARs can be additive over time. (wikipedia.org)
  • Within minutes after spinal cord injury, damaged neural cells within the lesion site spill glutamate into the extracellular space where glutamate can stimulate presynaptic glutamate receptors to enhance the release of additional glutamate. (wikipedia.org)
  • subtypes
  • But because serotonin can increase or decrease cortical pyramidal neuron activity depending on its concentration and which receptor subtypes are activated, more research is needed to more fully elucidate how aggressive behaviors are controlled. (jneurosci.org)
  • stimulation
  • Chemical stimulation, while more complicated than electrical stimulation, has the distinct advantage of activating cell bodies, but not nearby axons, because only cell bodies and subsequent dendrites contain glutamate receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, chemical stimulation by kainic acid is more localized than electrical stimulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • domoic acid
  • Domoic acid epileptic disease is characterized by spontaneous recurrent seizures weeks to months after domoic acid exposure. (mdpi.com)
  • Here, we present the concept of domoic acid epileptic disease as a delayed manifestation of domoic acid poisoning and review the state of knowledge for this disease state in affected humans and sea lions. (mdpi.com)
  • Domoic acid epileptic disease is characterized by spontaneous recurrent seizures weeks to months after domoic acid poisoning and unusual behaviors in animal subjects, notably conspecific aggression. (mdpi.com)
  • It is also evident that domoic acid can trigger a separate process of epileptogeneis, which, over a latent "silent" period of weeks to months, causes a disease state of progressive recurrent seizures and behavioral abnormalities [ 8 , 9 , 10 , 11 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • We now define domoic acid epileptic disease as distinct consequence of domoic acid poisoning that occurs in the absence of domoic acid. (mdpi.com)
  • However, in the case of domoic acid, we use the term "disease" because it is caused by a known external factor with a defined sequence of events and course of prognosis. (mdpi.com)
  • This concept report focuses on those essential characteristics of domoic acid poisoning that lead to epileptic disease drawing on case studies in humans and sea lions and a rat model to elucidate the structural basis specific to domoic acid epileptic maturation. (mdpi.com)
  • antiworming agent neuroscience research neurodegenerative agent modeling of epilepsy modeling of Alzheimer's disease Dihydrokainic acid Domoic acid Kainate receptor Carlson, Neil R. Physiology of Behavior. (wikipedia.org)
  • There has been little use of domoic acid throughout history except for in Japan, where it has been used as an anthelmintic for centuries. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1961, seabirds attacked the Capitola area in California, and though it was never confirmed, they were thought to be under the influence of domoic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Blue mussels (Mytulis edulis) contaminated with domoic acid were blamed. (wikipedia.org)
  • An incident in which domoic acid may have been involved took place on June 22, 2006, when a California brown pelican flew through the windshield of a car on the Pacific Coast Highway. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ohfune and Tomita, who wanted to investigate its absolute stereochemistry, were the first and only to synthesize domoic acid in 1982. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1999, using 13C- and 14C-labelled precursors, the biosynthesis of domoic acid in the diatom genus Pseudo-nitzschia was examined. (wikipedia.org)
  • After addition of [1,2-13Cacetate, NMR spectroscopy showed enrichment of every carbon in domoic acid, indicating incorporation of the carbon isotopes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The labeling pattern determined that domoic acid can be biosynthesized by an isoprenoid intermediate in combination with a tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediate. (wikipedia.org)
  • 8 was then deselenated to form 9 (E-9 and Z-9), lastly leading to the formation of (-) domoic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • The effects of domoic acid have been attributed to several mechanisms, but the one of concern is through glutamate receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Domoic acid producing algal blooms are associated with the phenomenon of amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP). (wikipedia.org)
  • Domoic acid can bioaccumulate in marine organisms such as shellfish, anchovies, and sardines that feed on the phytoplankton known to produce this toxin. (wikipedia.org)
  • In marine mammals, domoic acid typically causes seizures and tremors. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the 1987 domoic acid poisoning on Prince Edward Island concentrations ranging from 0.31-1.28 mg/kg of muscle tissue were noted in people that became ill (three of whom died). (wikipedia.org)
  • Dangerous levels of domoic acid have been calculated based on cases such as the one on Prince Edward island. (wikipedia.org)
  • New research has found that domoic acid is a heat-resistant and very stable toxin, which can damage kidneys at concentrations that are 100 times lower than what causes neurological effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1980
  • Ben-Ari, Y., Tremblay, E., and Ottersen, 0.P., 1980, Injections of kainic acid into the amygdaloid complex of the rat: an electrographic, clinical and histological study in relation to the pathology of epilepsy, Neuroscience 5: 515. (springer.com)
  • GABAA
  • However unlike most benzodiazepine derivatives, Ro5-4864 lacks affinity for GABAA receptors and lacks typical benzodiazepine effects, instead being sedative yet also convulsant and anxiogenic in effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • binds
  • Progestogens are group of natural non-synthetic hormones, including progesterone, which binds to progesterone receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • potent
  • Kainic acid is a potent central nervous system excitant that is used in epilepsy research to induce seizures in experimental animals, at a typical dose of 10-30 mg/kg in mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • amino acids
  • In humans, dietary proteins are broken down by digestion into amino acids, which serve as metabolic fuel for other functional roles in the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • mRNA
  • 2) ET_A receptor proteins were observed in the area posterior, the caudal solitary tract nucleus and dorsal nucleus of the vagus in rat brainstem, whereas ET_A mRNA was localized to only area posterior. (nii.ac.jp)
  • On the other hand, the distribution of ET_B receptor proteins was similar to that of ET_B mRNA, and the ET_B receptors were expressed in the glia cells. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Several ion channels and neurotransmitters receptors pre-mRNA as substrates for ADARs. (wikipedia.org)
  • The pre-mRNA of GLUR-6 is edited at three positions at amino acid positions 567, 571, and 621. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nucleotide
  • Toll-like receptor (TLR)-and in the cytoplasm [e.g. nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (Nod)-like receptors] of cells of the innate immune system, primarily macrophages and dendritic cells. (biologists.org)
  • microglia expresse various P2X and P2Y receptors, nucleotide receptors, which regulate not only chemotaxis but also phagocytosis [ 8 , 12 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • distinct
  • Although quiescent at 4 days in vitro (DIV), HN acquired distinctive SCO patterns as they matured to form extensive dendritic networks by 16 DIV. Challenge with kainate, a kainate receptor (KAR) agonist, 4-aminopyridine (4-AP), a K + channel blocker, or pilocarpine, a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor agonist, caused distinct changes in SCO dynamics. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Strains
  • Kainic acid receptor sites in the cerebellum of nervous, purkinje cell degeneration, reeler, staggerer and weaver mouse mutant strains. (jax.org)
  • Our results obtained so far suggested a possibility of the 3rd receptor for SSPE strains different from CD150 (SLAM) and CD46. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Autoradiography
  • We investigated the distribution of endothelin (ET) receptors and their functions by using our imazing Analyzer system, including quantitative receptor autoradiography, in situ hybridization and Immunohistochemistry. (nii.ac.jp)