• cell receptor
  • The most extensive down-stream effects after type I IFN neutralization were seen at day 56, and upstream regulator analysis suggested the suppression of T cell receptor, nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFATC2), and CD40L by MEDI-546 administration. (bmj.com)
  • More specifically, PEGylated recombinant human IL-10 (PEG-rHuIL-10) has been shown to enhance CD8+ T cell secretion of the cytotoxic molecules Granzyme B and Perforin and potentiate T cell receptor dependent IFNγ secretion. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • Although some elements involved in transcriptional regulation of interferon inducible genes have been identified, the pathways involved in these regulatory processes are not understood as yet. (epfl.ch)
  • The existence of amphibian type I IFNs have been inferred by the discovery of the genes encoding their receptor chains. (wikipedia.org)
  • The connection between Jaks and cytokine signaling was first revealed when a screen for genes involved in interferon type I (IFN-1) signaling identified Tyk2 as an essential element, which is activated by an array of cytokine receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are two possible trancripts (due to alternative splicing) that encode 2 isoforms of STAT1 STAT1 is involved in upregulating genes due to a signal by either type I, type II, or type III interferons. (wikipedia.org)
  • In either case, binding of the promoter element leads to an increased expression of ISG (Interferon-Stimulated Genes). (wikipedia.org)
  • cytokines
  • Further investigation has shown that IL-10 predominantly inhibits lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and bacterial product mediated induction of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNFα, IL-1β, IL-12, and IFNγ secretion from Toll-Like Receptor (TLR) triggered myeloid lineage cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hence, targeting cytokines and their receptors is an effective means of treating such disorders. (wikipedia.org)
  • affinity
  • U. Ucer, H. Bartsch, P. Scheurich, and K. Pfizenmaier, "Biological effects of γ -interferon on human tumor cells: quantity and affinity of cell membrane receptors for γ -IFN in relation to growth inhibition and induction of HLA-DR expression," International Journal of Cancer , vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 103-108, 1985. (hindawi.com)
  • Saturation plots of the binding data show that IFN-α treatment does not dramatically alter the affinity of the EGF-R and indicate that IFN-α only increases the number of low affinity receptors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • IFNs
  • Interferons (IFNs) exert their pleiotropic effects through at least two different receptors. (epfl.ch)
  • IFNs alpha/beta (type I IFNs) crossreact with presumably common receptors, while IFN gamma (type II IFN) initiates its biological effects through its own specific receptor system. (epfl.ch)
  • For example, type I IFNs induce interferon-stimulated gene (ISG) expression, classically resulting in a robust anti-viral immune response. (wikipedia.org)
  • The evolutionary conservation of type I IFN subtypes binding the same IFNAR receptor at the same site with differing affinities suggests that type I IFNs are nonredundant and potentially regulate different cellular responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • chains
  • IL-22 biological activity is initiated by binding to a cell-surface complex composed of IL-22R1 and IL-10R2 receptor chains and further regulated by interactions with a soluble binding protein, IL-22BP, which shares sequence similarity with an extracellular region of IL-22R1 (sIL-22R1). (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a type I membrane protein that forms one of the two chains of a receptor for interferons alpha and beta. (wikipedia.org)
  • ligand-induced
  • Current hypotheses for differential signaling include ligand-specific differences to the stability, or lifetime, of the ternary complex, ligand-induced changes to internalization and trafficking of the receptor and currently unappreciated differences to ligand-receptor structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tyk2
  • Recently, it has been recognized that IL-12 and IL-23 share ligand and receptor subunits that activate Tyk2. (wikipedia.org)
  • knockout
  • Hazara virus is in the same Nairovirus serogroup as Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever virus (CCHFV), and has similar disease progression to that seen in Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) infections in suckling mice and in the interferon receptor knockout mouse model This indicates that Hazara virus could represent a valid model for CCHFV infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulate
  • The presence of this domain in the COOH-terminal region suggests that the receptor may interact with signaling molecules that negatively regulate interferon responses. (epfl.ch)
  • In mice, deletion of this enzyme results in increased inflammatory response to type I interferons, suggesting that USP18 may, in part, regulate interferon responsiveness. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stat1
  • In this complex, Jak1 and Jak2 transactivate one another and then phosphorylate IFNGR1, thereby forming a paired set of Stat1 docking sites on the ligated receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • In response to interferon (IFN), this protein forms a complex with STAT1 and IFN regulatory factor family protein p48 (IRF9), in which this protein acts as a transactivator, but lacks the ability to bind DNA directly. (wikipedia.org)
  • TLRs
  • Microglia express toll-like receptors (TLRs) that play significant roles in the pathogenesis of sterile CNS injury. (hindawi.com)
  • stimulation
  • Furthermore, while differential effects manifest after several days of chronic stimulation, changes to receptor structure, orientation, or stoichiometry have not elucidated the cause for differential signaling via different type I IFN subtypes. (wikipedia.org)
  • IL-10 may autoregulate its expression via a negative feed-back loop involving autocrine stimulation of the IL-10 receptor and inhibition of the p38 signaling pathway. (wikipedia.org)