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  • immunology
  • According to an immunology textbook: "IL-2 is particularly important historically, as it is the first type I cytokine that was cloned, the first type I cytokine for which a receptor component was cloned, and was the first short-chain type I cytokine whose receptor structure was solved. (wikipedia.org)
  • ligands
  • Several different receptors on Mphi have been shown to bind LPS, including the type A scavenger receptor (SR-A). This receptor is able to bind a broad range of polyanionic ligands such as modified lipoproteins and lipoteichoic acid of gram-positive bacteria, which suggests that SR-A plays a role in host defense. (nih.gov)
  • The normal ligands for this receptor, RANTES, MIP-1β, and MIP-1α, are able to suppress HIV-1 infection in vitro. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • Fas ligand (FasL) is a membrane protein capable of inducing apoptosis in cells bearing its receptor, Fas, primarily cells of the immune system. (ahajournals.org)
  • Although activation of natural killer (NK) cytotoxicity is generally inhibited by target major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I expression, subtle features of NK allorecognition suggest that NK cells possess receptors that are activated by target MHC I. The mouse Ly-49D receptor has been shown to activate NK cytotoxicity, although recognition of MHC class I has not been demonstrated previously. (nih.gov)
  • These experiments show that the activating receptor Ly-49D specifically interacts with the MHC I antigen, H-2Dd, demonstrating the existence of alloactivating receptors on murine NK cells. (nih.gov)
  • Toll-like receptors have also been shown to be an important link between innate and adaptive immunity through their presence in dendritic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fc receptors bind to antibodies that are attached to infected cells or invading pathogens. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some viruses such as flaviviruses use Fc receptors to help them infect cells, by a mechanism known as antibody-dependent enhancement of infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, A2A receptor can negatively regulate overreactive immune cells, thereby protecting tissues from collateral inflammatory damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Drugs that block the CXCR4 receptor appear to be capable of "mobilizing" hematopoietic stem cells into the bloodstream as peripheral blood stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Expression of this receptor in cancer cells has been linked to metastasis to tissues containing a high concentration of CXCL12, such as lungs, liver and bone marrow. (wikipedia.org)
  • B cells have CR2 receptors on their surfaces, allowing the complement system to play a role in B-cell activation and maturation CR2 on mature B cells form a complex with two other membrane proteins, CD19 and CD81(=TAPA-1). (wikipedia.org)
  • 1976) found complete overlapping of EBV receptors and C3 receptors on human B cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • C-C chemokine receptor type 5, also known as CCR5 or CD195, is a protein on the surface of white blood cells that is involved in the immune system as it acts as a receptor for chemokines. (wikipedia.org)
  • These receptors are located on the surface of host immune cells whereby they provide a method of entry for the HIV-1 virus to infect the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Examples of such a molecule are cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4 or CD152), which is an inhibitory receptor found on immune cells and programmed cell death 1 (CD279), which has an important role in down-regulating the immune system by preventing the activation of T-cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R) is a heterotrimeric protein expressed on the surface of certain immune cells, such as lymphocytes, that binds and responds to a cytokine called IL-2. (wikipedia.org)
  • and all three receptor chains form a complex that binds IL-2 with high affinity (Kd ~ 10−11 M) on activated T cells and regulatory T cells The intermediate and high affinity receptor forms are functional and cause changes in the cell when IL-2 binds to them. (wikipedia.org)
  • IL-2 and its receptor have key roles in key functions of the immune system, tolerance and immunity, primarily via their direct effects on T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • More specifically, eukaryotic cells use endocytosis of the uptake of nutrients, down regulation of growth factor receptors' and as a mass regulator of the signaling circuit. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibitory
  • The p46-mediated induction of Ca2+ increases or triggering of cytolytic activity was downregulated by the simultaneous engagement of inhibitory receptors including p58, p70, and CD94/NKG2A. (nih.gov)
  • The ability to interfere with the inhibitory function of checkpoint receptors CD152 and CD279 (programmed death-1) in oncology has proved successful. (wikipedia.org)
  • ligand receptor
  • Genetic analysis showed that Caspase-3, Caspase-9, and p38 MAPK interacted with Slit1a-Robo2 signaling, suggesting that localized activation of caspases lie downstream of a ligand receptor system, acting as key promoters of axonal branch tip and synaptic dynamics to restrict arbor growth in vivo in the central nervous system. (zfin.org)
  • binds
  • An immune receptor (or immunologic receptor) is a receptor, usually on a cell membrane, which binds to a substance (for example, a cytokine) and causes a response in the immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another FcR is expressed on multiple cell types and is similar in structure to MHC class I. This receptor also binds IgG and is involved in preservation of this antibody. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once this receptor binds acetylcholine, it undergoes an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • During HIV-1 infection, the Gp120 envelope glycoprotein subunit binds to a CD4 glycoprotein and a HIV-1 co-receptor expressed on a target cell- forming a heterotrimeric complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • The structure of the stable complex formed when IL-2 binds to the high affinity receptor has been determined using X-ray crystallography. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once IL-2 binds to the high affinity receptor, the complex is rapidly internalized and has only a short time to signal. (wikipedia.org)
  • antigen
  • In the lymph nodes, DCs mince the engulfed pathogen and then express the pathogen clippings as antigen on their cell surface by coupling them to a special receptor known as a major histocompatibility complex (MHC). (wikipedia.org)
  • Through their role in the development of T cell immunologic memory, which depends upon the expansion of the number and function of antigen-selected T cell clones, they also have a key role in enduring cell-mediated immunity. (wikipedia.org)
  • complement
  • Complement receptor 2 has been shown to interact with CD19. (wikipedia.org)
  • primate complement receptor 1, which recapitulates many of the structural domains and presumed functions of Cr2-derived CR1 in subprimates, is encoded by a distinct CR1 gene (apparently derived from the gene Crry of subprimates). (wikipedia.org)
  • CXCR4
  • CXCR4 is upregulated during the implantation window in natural and hormone replacement therapy cycles in the endometrium, producing, in presence of a human blastocyst, a surface polarization of the CXCR4 receptors suggesting that this receptor is implicated in the adhesion phase of human implantation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plerixafor (AMD3100) is a drug, approved for routine clinical use, which directly blocks the CXCR4 receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • CXCL12 (over-)expressing cancers might not sense the CXCL12 gradient released from the metastasis target tissues since the receptor, CXCR4, is saturated with the ligand produced in an autocrine manner. (wikipedia.org)
  • superfamily
  • A secreted member of the TNF receptor superfamily that negatively regulates osteoclastogenesis. (curehunter.com)
  • All of the Fcγ receptors (FcγR) belong to the immunoglobulin superfamily and are the most important Fc receptors for inducing phagocytosis of opsonized (marked) microbes. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is composed of two extracellular Ig-like domains, and is a member of both the immunoglobulin superfamily and the multi-chain immune recognition receptor (MIRR) family. (wikipedia.org)
  • With one Ig-like domain in its extracellular portion, this Fc receptor is also a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are members of a superfamily of ligand-gated ion channels that mediate fast signal transmission at synapses. (wikipedia.org)
  • gp120
  • Because binding to CD4 alone can sometimes result in gp120 shedding, gp120 must next bind to co-receptor CCR5 in order for fusion to proceed. (wikipedia.org)
  • The tyrosine sulfated amino terminus of this co-receptor is the "essential determinant" of binding to the gp120 glycoprotein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Co-receptor recognition also include the V1-V2 region of gp120, and the bridging sheet (an antiparallel, 4-stranded β sheet that connects the inner and outer domains of gp120). (wikipedia.org)
  • CCR5 is the primary co-receptor used by gp120 sequentially with CD4. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although it hasn't been finalized as a proven theory yet, binding of gp120-CCR5 involves two crucial steps: 1) The tyrosine sulfated amino terminus of this co-receptor is an "essential determinant" of binding to gp120 (as stated previously) 2) Following step 1. (wikipedia.org)
  • Humans
  • Some pygmy chimpanzees (also called Bonobos) give much simpler patterns of hybridization on Southern blotting with killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) cDNA probes than do either humans or common chimpanzees. (nih.gov)
  • cardiac
  • Just as in A1 receptors, this normally serves as a protective mechanism, but may be destructive in altered cardiac function. (wikipedia.org)
  • induce
  • The ability of IL-1 to induce IL-2 receptor expression in the absence of T cell mitogen is the basis of this assay. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • Pancreatic islets express high levels of IL-22 receptor and IL-22 has been shown to induce islet beta cell regeneration. (wikipedia.org)
  • functional
  • Heteromers consisting of adenosine A1/A2A, dopamine D2/A2A and D3/A2A, glutamate mGluR5/A2A and cannabinoid CB1/A2A have all been observed, as well as CB1/A2A/D2 heterotrimers, and the functional significance and endogenous role of these hybrid receptors is still only starting to be unravelled. (wikipedia.org)
  • lymphocytes
  • By expressing in appropriate time and location, these pathways have different regulatory functions through independent receptors or on different subsets of lymphocytes. (biomedsearch.com)
  • CXCR-4 is an alpha-chemokine receptor specific for stromal-derived-factor-1 (SDF-1 also called CXCL12), a molecule endowed with potent chemotactic activity for lymphocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell
  • It has been implicated in extending the known immune system functions of P2Y receptors by participating in the regulation of the stem cell compartment, and it may also play a role in neuroimmune function. (wikipedia.org)
  • The three receptor chains are expressed separately and differently on various cell types and can assemble in different combinations and orders to generate low, intermediate, and high affinity IL-2 receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • The three IL-2 receptor chains span the cell membrane and extend into the cell, thereby delivering biochemical signals to the cell interior. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, the concentration of IL-2 and its receptor available determines the tempo, magnitude and extent of T cell immune responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • In vitro, estradiol is shown to regulate FasL expression at the transcriptional level via an estrogen receptor-mediated, NO-dependent mechanism. (ahajournals.org)
  • Conclusions Estradiol transcriptionally regulates endothelial FasL expression by a mechanism involving at least one of the estrogen receptors. (ahajournals.org)
  • hypotension
  • The A2A receptor is responsible for regulating myocardial blood flow by vasodilating the coronary arteries, which increases blood flow to the myocardium, but may lead to hypotension. (wikipedia.org)