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  • antibody
  • Their central role in excitotoxicity and prevalence in the central nervous system has been linked or speculated to be linked to many neurodegenerative diseases, and several other conditions have been further linked to glutamate receptor gene mutations or receptor autoantigen/antibody activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • NMDA
  • Synthesis and evaluation of 1-{1-[5-(2′-[ 18 F]Fluoroethyl)-2-thienyl]-cyclohexyl}piperidine as a potential in vivo radioligand for the NMDA receptor-Channel complex," Nuclear Medicine and Biology , vol. 20, no. 7, pp. 865-873, 1993. (hindawi.com)
  • Synthesis and binding characteristics of N-(1-naphthyl)-N′-(3-[ 125 I]-iodophenyl)-N′-methylguanidine ([ 125 I]-CNS 1261): a potential SPECT agent for imaging NMDA receptor activation," Nuclear Medicine and Biology , vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 557-564, 2000. (hindawi.com)
  • Kinetic modelling of [ 123 I]CNS 1261-a potential SPET tracer for the NMDA receptor," Nuclear Medicine and Biology , vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 441-454, 2003. (hindawi.com)
  • A bolus/infusion paradigm for the novel NMDA receptor SPET tracer [ 123 I]CNS 1261," Nuclear Medicine and Biology , vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 155-164, 2004. (hindawi.com)
  • J. T. Kantrowitz and D. C. Javitt, "N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor dysfunction or dysregulation: the final common pathway on the road to schizophrenia? (hindawi.com)
  • First in vivo evidence of an NMDA receptor deficit in medication-free schizophrenic patients," Molecular Psychiatry , vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 118-119, 2006. (hindawi.com)
  • In vivo evaluation of [ 11 C]N-(2-chloro-5-thiomethylphenyl)- N ′-(3-methoxy-phenyl)- N ′-methylguanidine ([ 11 C]GMOM) as a potential PET radiotracer for the PCP/NMDA receptor," Nuclear Medicine and Biology , vol. 31, no. 7, pp. 939-948, 2004. (hindawi.com)
  • M. C. Asselin, A. Hammers, D. Turton, S. Osman, M. Koepp, and D. Brooks, "Initial kinetic analysis of the in vivo binding of the putative NMDA receptor ligand [ 11 C]CNS 5161 in humans," Neuroimage , vol. 22, p. (hindawi.com)
  • Its phosphorylation at Ser-1303 by DAPK1 enhances synaptic NMDA receptor channel activity inducing injurious Ca2+ influx through them, resulting in an irreversible neuronal death (By similarity). (drugbank.ca)
  • NMDA receptors are blocked by magnesium ions and therefore only permit ion flux following prior depolarisation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Calcium influx through NMDA receptors leads to persistent modifications in the strength of synaptic transmission. (wikipedia.org)
  • The second large group of anti-glutamate receptor antibodies is associated with different subunits of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Patients with limbic encephalitis, encephalitis, systemic lupus erythematosus, ataxia and epilepsia partialis continua may present with serum and cerebrospinal fluid antibodies to the delta2 or NR2 subunits of the NMDA receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antibodies against the NR1, NR2A and NR2B subunits of the NMDA receptor were described by Josep Dalmau, Erdem Tüzün and colleagues in women presenting with psychiatric symptoms, amnesia, seizures, dyskinesias, autonomic dysfunction and loss of consciousness. (wikipedia.org)
  • So far, these antibodies appear to be associated with an accompanying ovarian or mediastinal teratoma expressing NMDA receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • NMDA receptor antibodies predict adverse neurological outcome after cardiac surgery in high-risk patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • The discovery of the Glutamate Receptor Interacting Protein (GRIP-1) came as a result of the observation that Glutamate Receptors, such as the NMDA receptor, cluster at synapses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Shortly after this observation, researchers identified a region on the C-terminal region of NMDA receptors called the tSXV motif that has the ability to bind to the PDZ domain of the PSD-95 protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • GRM5
  • Group I includes GRM1 and GRM5 and these receptors have been shown to activate phospholipase C. Group II includes GRM2 and GRM3 while Group III includes GRM4, GRM6, GRM7 and GRM8. (wikipedia.org)
  • The metabotropic glutamate receptors are a family of G protein-coupled receptors, that have been divided into 3 groups on the basis of sequence homology, putative signal transduction mechanisms, and pharmacologic properties: Group I includes GRM1 and GRM5 and these receptors have been shown to activate phospholipase C. Group II includes mGluR2 (this receptor) and GRM3 while Group III includes GRM4, GRM6, GRM7 and GRM8. (wikipedia.org)
  • mglur3
  • While it is some five times less potent than LY-341,495 at mGluR3, it has 38x higher affinity for mGluR3 over mGluR2, making it one of the few ligands available that is able to distinguish between these two closely related receptor subtypes. (wikipedia.org)
  • neuronal
  • Glutamate receptors are synaptic receptors located primarily on the membranes of neuronal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glutamate is also used by the brain to synthesize GABA (γ-Aminobutyric acid), the main inhibitory neurotransmitter of the mammalian central nervous system, which plays a role in regulating neuronal excitability throughout the nervous system and is also directly responsible for the regulation of muscle tone in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • neurotransmitter
  • Glutamate (the conjugate base of glutamic acid) is abundant in the human body, but particularly in the nervous system and especially prominent in the human brain where it is the body's most prominent neurotransmitter, the brain's main excitatory neurotransmitter, and also the precursor for GABA, the brain's main inhibitory neurotransmitter. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glutamate (Glutamic acid) is the most prominent neurotransmitter in the body, and it is the main excitatory neurotransmitter, being present in over 50% of nervous tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glutamate was initially discovered to be a neurotransmitter in insect studies in the early 1960s. (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane
  • Stimulating the receptors causes the associated enzyme phospholipase C to hydrolyze phosphoinositide phospholipids in the cell's plasma membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • The lipophilic diacylglycerol remains in the membrane, acting as a cofactor for the activation of protein kinase C. These receptors are also associated with Na+ and K+ channels. (wikipedia.org)
  • binds
  • which binds glutamate), the transmembrane domain (TMD) that forms the ion channel, and an intracellular C-terminal domain (CTD). (wikipedia.org)
  • hippocampus
  • Batten, S.R.;Matveeva, E.A.;Whiteheart, S.W.;Vanaman, T.C.;Gerhardt, G.A.;Slevin, J.T. "Linking kindling to increased glutamate release in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus through the STXBP5/tomosyn-1 gene. (uky.edu)
  • Mechanisms
  • Glutamate Neurotoxicity , Oxidative Stress and Mechanisms of Protection in the Rat Brain, In: Trends in Brain Mapping Research, Editor: F.J. Chen, Nova Science Publishers, NY, USA. (of.by)
  • Signaling
  • Ca 2+ sparks are the elementary units of Ca 2+ signaling in the striated muscle fibers that appear as highly localized Ca 2+ release events mediated by ryanodine receptor (RyR) Ca 2+ release channels on the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) membrane. (jove.com)
  • induces
  • Due to its hydrophilic character, IP3 can travel to the endoplasmic reticulum, where it induces, via fixation on its receptor, the opening of calcium channels increasing in this way the cytosolic calcium concentrations. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanism
  • There is a lot of interest in the histamine H3 receptor as a potential therapeutic target because of its involvement in the neuronal mechanism behind many cognitive H3R-disorders and especially its location in the central nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most scorpions The box jellyfish Elapid snakes The cone snail The Blue-ringed octopus Venomous fish Frogs Palythoa coral Various different types of algae, cyanobacteria and dinoflagellates Myotoxins are small, basic peptides found in snake and lizard venoms, They cause muscle tissue damage by a non enzymatic receptor based mechanism. (wikipedia.org)
  • release
  • Matveeva, E.A.;Davis, V.A.;Whiteheart, S.W.;Vanaman, T.C.;Gerhardt, G.A.;Slevin, J.T. "Kindling-induced asymmetric accumulation of hippocampal 7S SNARE complexes correlates with enhanced glutamate release. (uky.edu)
  • cellular
  • Toxins can be small molecules, peptides, or proteins that are capable of causing disease on contact with or absorption by body tissues interacting with biological macromolecules such as enzymes or cellular receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • Viral tropism for the decidua and placenta is then dependent on viral entry receptor expression in these tissues as well as on the maternal immune response to the virus. (jci.org)
  • enzyme
  • Because 24S-hydroxycholesterol (main product of this enzyme) is a major activator of oxysterol liver X receptors (LXR), it is possible that cholesterol-24 hydroxylase may play an indirect regulatory role in the metabolism of lipids in the liver. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stimulating the receptors causes the associated enzyme phospholipase C to hydrolyze phosphoinositide phospholipids in the cell's plasma membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • drug
  • Another synthetic drug specific to the adenosine A2A receptor subtype is CGS-21680 that has been shown to cause apneas in 14- to 21-day-old rat pups in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • The axons of olfactory receptor cells which express the same OR converge to form glomeruli in the olfactory bulb. (wikipedia.org)
  • CB2 receptors are most commonly prevalent on B-cells, natural killer cells, and monocytes, but can also be found on polymorphonuclear neutrophil cells, T8 cells, and T4 cells. (wikipedia.org)