• gene
  • Rats with lesions of the nigrostriatal dopamine pathway caused by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) serve as a model for Parkinson's disease and show alterations in gene expression in the two major output systems of the striatum to the globus pallidus and substantia nigra. (sciencemag.org)
  • These changes are taken as evidence of D 2 receptor-mediated suppression of neural activity and gene transcription. (jneurosci.org)
  • It is now known to be located in the coding region of the ANKK1 gene which controls the synthesis of dopamine in the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • clarification needed] More recent studies show an interaction between friendships and the dopamine receptor (DRD4) gene that is associated with political ideology. (wikipedia.org)
  • The adenosine A2A receptor, also known as ADORA2A, is an adenosine receptor, and also denotes the human gene encoding it. (wikipedia.org)
  • increases
  • Using whole-cell recording techniques in neocortical brain slices, we have examined how dopamine increases excitability of layer I interneurons in postnatal day 7-11 rats. (jneurosci.org)
  • Dopamine increases the motivation for food cravings and appetite mediation. (wikipedia.org)
  • It increases the release of dopamine as well as its metabolites DOPAC and HVA in the prefrontal cortex in a manner similar to the atypical antipsychotic clozapine. (wikipedia.org)
  • The A2A receptor is responsible for regulating myocardial blood flow by vasodilating the coronary arteries, which increases blood flow to the myocardium, but may lead to hypotension. (wikipedia.org)
  • heteromers
  • The actions of the A2A receptor are complicated by the fact that a variety of functional heteromers composed of a mixture of A2A subunits with subunits from other unrelated G-protein coupled receptors have been found in the brain, adding a further degree of complexity to the role of adenosine in modulation of neuronal activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Heteromers consisting of adenosine A1/A2A, dopamine D2/A2A and D3/A2A, glutamate mGluR5/A2A and cannabinoid CB1/A2A have all been observed, as well as CB1/A2A/D2 heterotrimers, and the functional significance and endogenous role of these hybrid receptors is still only starting to be unravelled. (wikipedia.org)
  • glutamate
  • These receptors reduce the activity of postsynaptic potentials in the cortex and act by inhibiting the release of glutamate and GABA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Based on the glutamate hypothesis of schizophrenia, glutamate receptor agonists have been suggested as an effective treatment for psychotic patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • dopaminergic
  • These findings are in line with a dual-state model of prefrontal dopamine, and provide new insights into the potential mechanism of action of dopaminergic drugs. (jneurosci.org)
  • Dopaminergic transmission within limbic regions of the brain is highly dependent on the regulation of D2 receptor activity. (jneurosci.org)
  • NCS-1-D2 receptor interaction may serve to couple dopamine and calcium signaling pathways, thereby providing a critical component in the regulation of dopaminergic signaling in normal and diseased brain. (jneurosci.org)
  • A number of psychiatric disorders including Tourette's syndrome and schizophrenia are associated with imbalances in dopaminergic transmission, possibly caused by alterations in dopamine receptor signaling ( Sealfon and Olanow, 2000 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • Therefore, it is possible that a dysregulation in dopaminergic signaling may be brought about through alterations in proteins that serve to regulate signaling through dopamine and other receptors. (jneurosci.org)
  • In spite of the recognition that alterations in dopaminergic signaling are the basis of these psychomotor disorders, the cellular mechanisms by which dopamine affects striatal function have remained something of a mystery. (jneurosci.org)
  • synaptic
  • The long form (D2Lh) has the "canonical" sequence and functions as a classic post-synaptic receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • The short form (D2Sh) is pre-synaptic and functions as an autoreceptor that regulates the levels of dopamine in the synaptic cleft. (wikipedia.org)
  • rats
  • By comparison, N-methyldopamine also had no effect in caudectomized mice at ≤ 150 mg/kg, and only a weak effect in nigral-lesioned rats at 25 mg/kg, although it was as effective as dopamine in stimulating cAMP in the adenylate cyclase assay. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanisms
  • Identifying the currents and receptor mechanisms involved in depolarization of layer I interneurons is essential for understanding the functional role of these cells and their modulation by dopamine. (jneurosci.org)
  • In spite of the recognition that striatal D 2 receptors are critical determinants in a variety of psychomotor disorders, the cellular mechanisms by which these receptors shape neuronal activity have remained a mystery. (jneurosci.org)
  • Dopamine D2 receptor transactivation of EGFR implicates c-Src via at least two mechanisms: direct phosphorylation of EGFR and/or phosphorylation of some matrix metalloproteinases (e.g. (bio-rad.com)
  • The Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS) involves the pleasures or reward mechanisms that rely on dopamine. (wikipedia.org)
  • kinase
  • This G-protein coupled receptor is Gs/a coupled and indirectly activates cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, stimulating the neuron. (wikipedia.org)
  • functional
  • The functional activity of LY-404,039 on mGluR receptors has been further demonstrated by investigating the drug's ability to suppress electrically stimulated excitatory postsynaptic potentials, or EPSPs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Synthetic
  • Dopexamine is a synthetic analogue of dopamine that is administered intravenously in hospitals to reduce exacerbations of heart failure and to treat heart failure following cardiac surgery. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dopexamine is a synthetic analogue of dopamine, a catecholamine. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulate
  • In addition, A2A receptor can negatively regulate overreactive immune cells, thereby protecting tissues from collateral inflammatory damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • prolactin
  • Typically, itopride is indicated in the treatment of GI symptoms caused by reduced GI motility: dyspepsia of a non-ulcer/dysmotility type (gastric "fullness", discomfort, and possible pain) gastroparesis (delayed gastric emptying) anorexia heartburn regurgitation bloating nausea and vomiting other possible gastric, prolactin, or dopamine related conditions Itopride is typically taken three times a day. (wikipedia.org)
  • cortical
  • Moreover, consistent with the cortical distribution of D2 receptors, post hoc analyses showed enhanced decoding of motor signals in motor cortex, but not of visual signals in visual cortex. (jneurosci.org)