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  • treatment
  • Dopamine agonist therapy, as referred to in the present invention, is generally used in the treatment of a central nervous system disorder such as Parkinson's disease. (epo.org)
  • schizophrenia
  • It is believed to work by blockading dopamine D1 and D2 receptors in the mesocortical and mesolimbic pathways, relieving or minimizing such symptoms of schizophrenia as hallucinations, delusions, and disorganized thought and speech. (wikipedia.org)
  • Functional
  • These data demonstrate pronounced supersensitivity of postsynaptic D2 dopamine receptors in the striatum of TAAR1-KO mice and indicate that a close interaction of TAAR1 and D2 dopamine receptors at the level of postsynaptic structures has important functional consequences. (nih.gov)
  • vitro
  • Bacopoulos, N. B., 1981, Acute Changes In The State Of Dopamine Receptors: in vitro monitoring with [3H]dopamine, Life Sci . (springer.com)
  • In vitro studies have shown that a D 2 -like receptor, in concert with a D 1 -like receptor, synergistically decreases Na + -K + -ATPase, sodium-phosphate co-transporter, and sodium hydrogen exchanger activities in renal proximal tubule and other cells. (ahajournals.org)
  • In vitro, D5 receptors show high constitutive activity that is independent of binding any agonists. (wikipedia.org)
  • agonism
  • There is evidence that D1 receptor agonism regulates phospholipase C independent of cAMP, however implications and mechanisms remain poorly understood. (wikipedia.org)
  • stimulation
  • Co-stimulation of D 1 and D 3 receptors led to additive vasorelaxation in WKY rats, but not in SHRs. (ahajournals.org)
  • 8,9 D 1 and D 5 receptors are expressed in renal proximal tubules, but the increase in cAMP production secondary to D 1 -like agonist stimulation is primarily a D 1 rather than a D 5 receptor effect. (ahajournals.org)
  • 12 We have found that these immortalized RPT cells have characteristics similar to freshly obtained RPTs and RPT brush-border membranes, at least regarding D 1 -like receptors and responses to G-protein stimulation. (ahajournals.org)
  • BDNF
  • It comprises Gq/11 coupling, phospholipase C activation, intracellular calcium release from inositol trisphosphate receptor-sensitive stores, CaMKII activation and BDNF production. (wikipedia.org)
  • activation
  • Dopamine receptor activation of Ca 2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II can be cAMP dependent or independent. (wikipedia.org)
  • 11 In a previous study, we showed that D 3 and D 1 receptors co-localized in immortalized renal proximal tubule (RPT) cells from normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats and that activation of D 3 dopamine receptors increased D 1 receptor protein expression in these cells. (ahajournals.org)
  • Volume transmission is the diffusion of neurotransmitters through the brain extracellular fluid released at points that may be remote from the target cells with the resulting activation of extrasynaptic receptors, and with a longer time course than for transmission at a single synapse. (wikipedia.org)
  • interact
  • D 1 and D 3 receptors interact differently in WKY and SHRs. (ahajournals.org)
  • Altered interactions between D 1 and D 3 receptors may play a role in the pathogenesis of genetic hypertension, including human hypertension, because these receptors also interact in human vascular smooth muscle cells. (ahajournals.org)
  • 3-5 In rats, during conditions of normal sodium load, and especially with increased sodium load, D 1 -like and D 2 -like receptors interact to increase sodium excretion. (ahajournals.org)
  • To determine whether D 1 and D 3 receptors also interact in vascular smooth muscle cells, we studied the effect of D 1 and D 3 receptor agonists on the wall tension of rat mesenteric arterial rings from WKY rats and SHRs. (ahajournals.org)
  • Its transactivator, Tax, can interact with p40, inducing overexpression of interleukin 2, interleukin receptors, GM-CSF and the transcription factor c-Fos. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1994
  • Duman, R. S., Heninger, G. R., and Nestler, E. J. (1994) Molecular psychiatry, adaptations of receptor-coupled signal transduction pathways underlying stress-and drug-induced neural plasticity. (springer.com)
  • affinity
  • For this reason, and the fact that it has little or no affinity for adrenaline receptors, pemoline has minimal sympathomimetic side effects such as: dry mouth, reduction in appetite, high blood pressure, increased heart rate, constriction of smooth muscle, cardiac stress, dilated pupils and insomnia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Much is known about the binding affinity of hundreds of synthetic compounds to the σ1 receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • bind
  • Adrenocorticotropic hormones bind to ACTH receptors on the cells within the adrenal medulla and adrenal cortex, causing a signal cascade within the adrenomedullary cell, ultimately releasing the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. (wikipedia.org)
  • When odorants enter the nasal cavity, they bind to odorant receptors at the base of the olfactory epithelium. (wikipedia.org)
  • subtype
  • Another synthetic drug specific to the adenosine A2A receptor subtype is CGS-21680 that has been shown to cause apneas in 14- to 21-day-old rat pups in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • targets
  • A final area of study involves molecular modeling based approaches to develop new photoactive arylazide derivatives of anti-schizophrenic phenothiazines and the use of these reagents to study the primary targets for their neuropharmacological action, dopamine receptors. (uky.edu)
  • activity
  • Increased activity of the adrenal nerves is done through the receptors for the corticotropin-releasing factor within the ganglia within the sympathetic nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanism
  • There is a lot of interest in the histamine H3 receptor as a potential therapeutic target because of its involvement in the neuronal mechanism behind many cognitive H3R-disorders and especially its location in the central nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • indirect
  • However, the indirect biosynthesis of phospholipid esters with dopamine may be possible, as dopamine can induce the aminolysis of the glycerol-fatty acid bonds in phospholipid chains (arachidonoyl, palmitoyl, linoleyl, etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • effects
  • The reasons for these effects are not well understood, even though σ1 receptors have been linked circumstantially to a wide variety of signal transduction pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • CB1 receptors, the bigger of the two, are extraordinarily abundant in the brain: 10 times more plentiful than μ-opioid receptors, the receptors responsible for the effects of morphine. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetic
  • Throughout her career her research has included work on opiate receptors, structure function analyses, behavioral studies, the neurobiology of severe psychiatric disorder, post mortem brains, and molecular genetic research. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • CB2 receptors are most commonly prevalent on B-cells, natural killer cells, and monocytes, but can also be found on polymorphonuclear neutrophil cells, T8 cells, and T4 cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • has found that individuals with a single nucleotide polymorphism variant in the OR11H7P pseudogene have a lower receptor activation threshold for isovaleric acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • has found that people with the intact human odorant receptor OR7D4 are more sensitive to androstenone and androstadienone and thus find them unpleasant (individuals with the semi-functional OR7D4 have two non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms in the OR7D4 pseudogene, resulting in two amino acid substitutions). (wikipedia.org)
  • levels
  • Plasma levels of soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products and coronary artery disease in nondiabetic men" (Free full text). (wikipedia.org)
  • Circulating levels of soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products in Alzheimer disease and vascular dementia" (Free full text). (wikipedia.org)
  • ability
  • Speculation has focused on the ability of other receptors in the σ family (e.g., σ2, with similar binding properties) to compensate for the lack of σ1 receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • shown
  • The σ1 receptor has been shown to appear in a complex with voltage gated K+ channels (Kv1.4 and Kv1.5), leading to the idea that σ1 receptors are auxiliary subunits. (wikipedia.org)
  • Also, σ1 receptors have been shown to appear in galactoceramide enriched domains at the endoplasmic reticulum of mature oligodendrocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • I also get into explaining how these Biotoxins latch on the Toll Receptor sites of fat cells and inappropriately trigger them to produce inflammatory Cytokine proteins. (biotoxinjourney.com)
  • signal
  • This perceptual disorder arises when there is an abnormally increased signal at any point between the olfactory receptors and the olfactory cortex. (wikipedia.org)