• lymphocytes
  • Our group is trying to understand how TCR subunits come together to form a receptor that can signal T lymphocytes. (openwetware.org)
  • The CD3 antigen is present on 68-82% of normal peripheral blood lymphocytes, 65-85% of thymocytes and Purkinje cells in the cerebellum. (sysmex-flowcytometry.com)
  • Plasma cell dyscrasias (also termed plasma cell disorders and plasma cell proliferative diseases) are a spectrum of progressively more severe monoclonal gammopathies in which a clone or multiple clones of pre-malignant or malignant plasma cells (sometimes in association with lymphoplasmacytoid cells or B lymphocytes) over-produce and secrete into the blood stream a myeloma protein, i.e. an abnormal monoclonal antibody or portion thereof. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plasma cells develop from B lymphocytes which are stimulated to undergo this maturational development by T lymphocytes during the latter cells' processing of these antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two main broad classes-antibody responses and cell mediated immune response-are also carried by two different lymphocytes (B cells and T cells). (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans, approximately 1-2% of the lymphocyte pool recirculates each hour to optimize the opportunities for antigen-specific lymphocytes to find their specific antigen within the secondary lymphoid tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • ligands
  • The expression of the different Notch ligands and their receptors at different times and in a tissue-specific manner raises the possibility of a unique function for each ligand ( 13 , 14 ). (rupress.org)
  • Hepatocyte growth factor/Scatter Factor (HGF/SF) and its splicing isoform (NK1, NK2) are the only known ligands of the MET receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • T-cells recognize changes in their environment through a specific T-cell receptor (TCR) protein expressed on their surface. (openwetware.org)
  • 3 (SH3)Ccontaining signaling protein, including SH3 proteins interacting with Nck (SPIN90/Desire), bullous pemphigoid antigen-1, and calcium supplement funnel 2. (code3systems.com)
  • Many essential receptor tyrosine kinases such as vascular endothelial development aspect (VEGF) receptor-1 (VEGFR-1), VEGFR-2, and VEGFR-2, and cell adhesion elements (Cameras), including cadherins, integrins, selectins, and immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily protein, all are included in angiogenesis (Bach et al . (code3systems.com)
  • It was shown that cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript protein (CART) increases the transcriptional activity of estrogen receptor alpha (zeige ESR1 ELISA Kits ) and that CART stimulates an autocrine/paracrine loop within tumor cells to amplify the CART signal. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • this disorder is a form of plasma cell dyscrasia in which no myeloma protein is detected in serum or urine (at least as determined by conventional laboratory methods) of individuals who have clear evidence of an increase in clonal bone marrow plasma cells and/or evidence of clonal plasma cell-mediated tissue injury (e.g. plasmacytoma tumors). (wikipedia.org)
  • At the other end of this spectrum, detection of the myeloid protein indicates the presence of a hematological malignancy, i.e. multiple myeloma, Waldenström's macroglobulinemia, or other B cell-associated neoplasm, that derives stepwise from its MGUS precursors. (wikipedia.org)
  • The primary single chain precursor protein is post-translationally cleaved to produce the alpha and beta subunits, which are disulfide linked to form the mature receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • It contributes the alpha chain to the larger TCR protein (T-cell receptor). (wikipedia.org)
  • Receptor-type tyrosine-protein phosphatase mu is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PTPRM gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transmembrane PTPs are known as receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases (RPTPs). (wikipedia.org)
  • RPTPs are single pass transmembrane proteins usually with one or two catalytic domains in their intracellular domain (the part of the protein that is inside the cell) and diverse extracellular structures (the part of the protein that is outside the cell). (wikipedia.org)
  • PTPmu protein expressed on the surface of cells is able to mediate binding between two cells, which results in the clustering of the cells, known as cell-cell aggregation. (wikipedia.org)
  • lymphoid
  • Analyses of further isolated precursor populations suggested that the enhanced generation of T and B cell precursors resulted from the effects on multipotent rather than lymphoid-committed precursors. (rupress.org)
  • We demonstrate that higher densities of Delta1 mainly promote the adoption of a T cell fate, whereas relatively lower densities enhance the generation of early T- and B-lymphoid precursors. (rupress.org)
  • gene segments
  • The large and diverse population of antibody paratope is generated by random recombination events of a set of gene segments that encode different antigen-binding sites (or paratopes), followed by random mutations in this area of the antibody gene, which create further diversity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The system is highly adaptable because of somatic hypermutation (a process of accelerated somatic mutations), and V(D)J recombination (an irreversible genetic recombination of antigen receptor gene segments). (wikipedia.org)
  • ligand
  • Programmed cell death receptor 1 (PD-1) and PD ligand 1 (PD-L1) have become promising therapeutic targets for various malignancies, but their role in the pathogenesis and their interactions with EBV in NKTCL remains to be investigated. (biomedcentral.com)
  • chains
  • There are several different types of antibody heavy chains that define the five different types of crystallisable fragments (Fc) that may be attached to the antigen-binding fragments. (wikipedia.org)
  • Assembly of the TCR/CD3 complex: CD3 epsilon/delta and CD3 epsilon/gamma dimers associate indistinctly with both TCR alpha and TCR beta chains. (wikipedia.org)
  • differentiation
  • In addition, Delta1 and Delta4 have been shown to promote early T cell differentiation ( 6 - 12 ). (rupress.org)
  • The BCR is found only on the surface of B cells and facilitates the activation of these cells and their subsequent differentiation into either antibody factories called plasma cells or memory B cells that will survive in the body and remember that same antigen so the B cells can respond faster upon future exposure. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Bursa of Fabricius is an organ that is unique to birds and is the only site for B cell differentiation and maturation. (wikipedia.org)
  • PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Further studies were concerned with the structure and function of the pre-T cell receptor and its role in controlling survival and differentiation of developing T cells that have succeeded in productive TCR beta rearrangement. (wikipedia.org)
  • reactive
  • The human immune system typically produces both T cells and B cells that are capable of being reactive with self-antigens, but these self-reactive cells are usually either killed prior to becoming active within the immune system, placed into a state of anergy (silently removed from their role within the immune system due to over-activation), or removed from their role within the immune system by regulatory cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mechanisms of preventing self-reactive T cells from being created takes place through negative selection process within the thymus as the T cell is developing into a mature immune cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since this process is random, it might also lead to de novo appearance of autoreactive TCRs on initially non-self reactive T cells or even switch between T cell lineages such as T regulatory cells and Th17 cells or gamma/delta and alpha/beta T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecule
  • The antibody recognizes a unique molecule of the pathogen, called an antigen, via the Fab's variable region. (wikipedia.org)
  • PTPmu accomplishes this by interacting with another PTPmu molecule on an adjacent cell, known as homophilic binding. (wikipedia.org)
  • hallmarks
  • The overproduced Ig's, termed myeloma proteins, commonly circulate in blood, may accumulate in urine, and are the hallmarks of plasma cell dyscrasias including their most malignant forms viz. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • In rhesus macaques rapid progression to simian AIDS has been associated with failure to regenerate critical effector immune cells at the tissue/environment interface, whereas in the remainder of infected animals, a striking proliferative response presumably derived from the naïve and central memory T cell compartment is observed [ 5 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • More recently it has been suggested that there is selective depletion of the Th17 cells from the GI tract- and that the loss of these cells may result in loss of mucosal integrity, translocation of microbial products, immune activation and subsequent CD4 + T cell loss [ 7 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • We found that relatively lower densities of Delta1 ext-IgG enhanced the generation of Sca-1 + c-kit + cells, Thy1 + CD25 + early T cell precursors, and B220 + CD43 −/lo cells that, when cocultured with OP9 stroma cells, differentiated into CD19 + early B cell precursors. (rupress.org)
  • The usage of p38 delta isoform by UV irradiation is not merely due to the abundance of this p38 isoform in the cells. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • If these gene alterations are successful in coding for a functional antibody (termed Ig for immunoglobulin), the maturing B cells and to a greater extent their plasma cell descendants make and secrete an intact antibody, initially IgM but after class switch recombinations, either IgG, IgA, IgE, or IgD. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the cited gene changes can go awry in plasma cells by, for example, placing a gene that ordinarily controls cell growth adjacent to the normally highly active antibody gene promotor thereby creating a cancer-causing oncogene or, more commonly, by forming extra chromosomes (see trisomy) or chromosomes that have deleted or repetitive sections, any of which such changes may promote malignancy in more complex and less well understood ways. (wikipedia.org)
  • B cells play a large role in the humoral immune response, whereas T cells are intimately involved in cell-mediated immune responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Receptor revision in T cells: an open question? (wikipedia.org)
  • Kishi, H., Uematsu, Y., Blüthmann, H. and von Boehmer, H.: Thymic MHC antigens and the specfficity of the ap T cell receptor determine the CD4/CD6 phenotype of T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • subunits
  • We are performing fluorescence resonance transfer (FRET) experiments with fluorescently labelled TCR subunits using flow cytometry and confocal microscopy to address the stoichiometry of this receptor complex during and in the absence of signaling. (openwetware.org)
  • CD3 delta knockout mice have double positive (DP) T cell precursors that express both CD4 and CD8 molecules, whereas knockouts of the other TCR subunits cannot advance to this stage of development. (openwetware.org)
  • survival
  • Using this binding mechanism, an antibody can tag a microbe or an infected cell for attack by other parts of the immune system, or can neutralize its target directly (for example, by blocking a part of a microbe that is essential for its invasion and survival). (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • Here we overcome this problem by applying a recently described method in quantitative proteomics [stable isotope-labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) ( 9 )] to directly determine the subset of cholesterol-dependent proteins in the biochemical preparation. (pnas.org)
  • They constitute most of the gamma globulin fraction of the blood proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dimerization of identical RPTP proteins at the cell surface leaves the PTP domains either in an open active conformation, as in the case of PTPmu and LAR, or in an inhibited conformation that leaves the catalytic domain inaccessible, in the case of CD45, PTPalpha, and PTPzeta/beta. (wikipedia.org)
  • Substrates of PTPmu (proteins that are dephosphorylated by PTPmu), such as p120catenin, tend to be dephosphorylated at high cell density, supporting the hypothesis that PTPmu is catalytically active when bound homophilically. (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • In fact, inhibition of each of these 4 p38 isoforms by the introduction of short hairpin (sh) RNAs for respective isoforms revealed that only shRNA for p38 delta attenuated the UV-induced up-regulation of BRAK/CXCL14 gene expression. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • Characterization and expression of multiple alternatively spliced transcripts of the Goodpasture antigen gene region. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene silencing is the regulation of gene expression in a cell to prevent the expression of a certain gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • inactivation
  • These include the proteolytic cleavage of pro-IL-1B at Asp116 into IL1β, cleavage of pro-IL-18 into IL-18 to induce IFN-γ secretion and natural killer cell activation, cleavage and inactivation of IL-33, DNA fragmentation and cell pore formation, inhibition of glycolytic enzymes, activation of lipid biosynthesis and secretion of tissue-repair mediators such as pro-IL-1α. (wikipedia.org)
  • recombination
  • T cell revision is achieved via reactivation of recombination enzymes RAG1 and/or RAG2 after T cell activation in the periphery and random recombination of their CDR sequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • precursors
  • TCR first gets expressed on the surface of T cell precursors that also have two co-receptors on their surface named CD4 and CD8. (openwetware.org)
  • The detection of Notch receptors in hematopoietic precursors suggested a role for Notch signaling in early hematopoietic development, whereas the potential role of Notch in regulating the self-renewal of multipotent precursors and in determining T versus B cell fates has been demonstrated in both gain- and loss-of-function studies ( 1 - 5 ). (rupress.org)
  • specific
  • Each tip of the "Y" of an antibody contains a paratope (analogous to a lock) that is specific for one particular epitope (similarly analogous to a key) on an antigen, allowing these two structures to bind together with precision. (wikipedia.org)
  • tolerance
  • This is because under normal physiologic conditions some regions of a self-antigen are not expressed at a sufficient level to induce tolerance. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanisms
  • Although it is possible for a potential autoantigen to be spatially sequestered in an immune privileged site within the body (e.g. the eye), mechanisms exist to express even these antigens in a tolerogenic fashion to the immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • surface
  • The Ig domain is also responsible for localizing PTPmu to the plasma membrane surface of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • lymph
  • This process occurs during follicular helper T cell formation in lymph node germinal centers. (wikipedia.org)
  • induce
  • Inflammasomes have been shown to induce cell pyroptosis, a process of programmed cell death distinct from apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • organism
  • A common approach in modern biological research is to modify the DNA sequence (genotype) of an organism (or a single cell) and observe the impact of this change on the organism (phenotype). (wikipedia.org)
  • activation
  • Ischemia insult triggered by oxygen-glucose deprivation ( OGD (zeige FGFR1 ELISA Kits )) enhances NRSF (zeige REST ELISA Kits ) mRNA levels and then NRSF (zeige REST ELISA Kits ) antagonizes the CREB (zeige CREB1 ELISA Kits ) signaling on CART activation, leading to augmented cell death. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Human
  • Human p38 MAPKs exist in 4 isoforms: p38 alpha, beta, gamma and delta. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • It is now clear that the bursa is the primary site of B cell lymphopoeisis and that avian B cell development has some unique properties compared to human or mouse models. (wikipedia.org)
  • Graft-versus-host disease-free allogeneic bone marrow transplantation after T cell removal (used later to cure human immunodeficiency). (wikipedia.org)
  • foreign
  • Depending on the antigen, the binding may impede the biological process causing the disease or may activate macrophages to destroy the foreign substance. (wikipedia.org)