• RANKL
  • RANK: the receptor for RANKL on preosteoclasts. (scribd.com)
  • Their action is blocked by MGP, a vitamin K-dependent protein, which also inhibits vascular mineralization as a co-factor of α -2-HS-glycoprotein (also known as fetuin-A). RANKL is a key factor of osteoclast maturation and also acts as an anticalcifying molecule. (slideshare.net)
  • OPG prevents the interaction of RANKL with its receptor. (slideshare.net)
  • Osteoclasts activated by proinflammatory cytokines (no. 1) and RANKL/M-CSF (no. 2) initiate bone resorption by releasing catalytic enzymes like Cat K and MMPs (no. 3) in a resorptive pit formed on the bone surface. (hindawi.com)
  • serum
  • Other roles have been proposed to involve immunoregulatory function by activating innate and adaptive immunity and cytokine release, activating inflammation by upregulation of nuclear factor κB and inducing tumor necrosis factor α, and other molecular actions to maintain glucose homeostasis and mediate insulin sensitivity by a low calcium status, obesity, or by elevating serum levels of parathyroid hormone. (scribd.com)
  • Calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) activation decreases serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) and Ca 2+ and, despite long-term reductions in mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), may produce acute hypertension in rats, an effect we hypothesized was mediated by constriction of multiple vascular beds. (aspetjournals.org)
  • gene
  • Parathyroid hormone 2 receptor is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PTH2R gene The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the G protein-coupled receptor family 2. (wikipedia.org)
  • The potential role of vitamin D deficiency in insulin resistance has been proposed to be associated with inherited gene polymorphisms including vitamin D-binding protein, vitamin D receptor, and vitamin D 1alpha-hydroxylase gene. (scribd.com)
  • Sodium-hydrogen exchange regulatory cofactor NHE-RF2 (NHERF-2) also known as tyrosine kinase activator protein 1 (TKA-1) or SRY-interacting protein 1 (SIP-1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC9A3R2 (solute carrier family 9 isoform A3 regulatory factor 2) gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Consistent with Coleman's and Leibel's hypothesis, several subsequent studies from Leibel's and Friedman's labs and other groups confirmed that the ob gene encoded a novel hormone that circulated in blood and that could suppress food intake and body weight in ob and wild type mice, but not in db mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • Subsequent studies in 1995 confirmed that the db gene encodes the leptin receptor, and that it is expressed in the hypothalamus, a region of the brain known to regulate the sensation of hunger and body weight. (wikipedia.org)
  • A mutation in the gene encoding the type III sodium dependent phosphate transporter 2 (SLC20A2) located on chromosome 8 has been reported. (wikipedia.org)
  • calcium
  • Treatment with NPS 2143, a negative allosteric modulator of the calcium-sensing receptor (CASR), increased PTH and calcium concentrations in WT and mutant mice, suggesting that the gain-of-function effect of GNA11(R6OC) is partly dependent on coupling to the CASR. (ku.dk)
  • In addition to its traditional effects on calcium homeostasis and bone health, vitamin D receptors (VDR) exist on a very wide range of tissues, including the endothelium, vascular smooth muscle, and cardiomyocytes, suggesting a much wider range of biological functions [ 1 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates. (labome.org)
  • This condition causes many diseases related with calcium reabsorption, because the principal function of the parathyroid hormone is to regulate it. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vitamin D is responsible for regulating the expression of many genes (at the level of transcription or by membrane receptors) that are mainly associated with the homeostasis of calcium and phosphate, carbohydrates, and lipids, as well as with the immune response or anticancer activity [2]. (termedia.pl)
  • Moreover, the complex metabolism of vitamin D, including its transformations and transport, determines its total and bioavailable pool, and it also depends on the calcium and parathyroid hormone concentrations in the blood [3, 5, (termedia.pl)
  • regulate
  • NHERF-2) is a scaffold protein that connects plasma membrane proteins with members of the ezrin/moesin/radixin family and thereby helps to link them to the actin cytoskeleton and to regulate their surface expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • Leptin (from Greek λεπτός leptos, "thin"), "the hormone of energy expenditure", is a hormone predominantly made by adipose cells that helps to regulate energy balance by inhibiting hunger. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both hormones act on receptors in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus to regulate appetite to achieve energy homeostasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Secretin helps regulate the pH of the duodenum by (1) inhibiting the secretion of gastric acid from the parietal cells of the stomach and (2) stimulating the production of bicarbonate from the centroacinar cells and intercalated ducts of the pancreas. (wikipedia.org)
  • polypeptide
  • Although there are many kinds of NETs, they are treated as a group of tissue because the cells of these neoplasms share common features, such as looking similar, having special secretory granules, and often producing biogenic amines and polypeptide hormones. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor
  • The most common and most accurate test to find a parathyroid tumor is the Sestamibi scan. (wikipedia.org)
  • For decades, it has been known that the best way to find a parathyroid tumor is through a very experienced parathyroid surgeon. (wikipedia.org)
  • Placing a given tumor into one of categories depends on well-defined histological features: size, lymphovascular invasion, mitotic counts, Ki-67 labelling index, invasion of adjacent organs, presence of metastases and whether they produce hormones. (wikipedia.org)
  • Within the broad category of neuroendocrine tumors there are many different tumor types: this outline is presented to facilitate retrieving information. (wikipedia.org)
  • transmembrane
  • Heterotrimeric G proteins play critical roles in transducing extracellular signals generated by 7-transmembrane domain receptors. (ku.dk)
  • Sodium-hydrogen exchange regulatory cofactor 2 has been shown to interact with SGK, Actinin alpha 4, Parathyroid hormone receptor 1, Phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1, EZR, PODXL, Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator and PLCB3. (wikipedia.org)
  • TNF is primarily produced as a 233-amino acid-long type II transmembrane protein arranged in stable homotrimers. (wikipedia.org)
  • vitamin
  • Vitamin D is characterized as a regulator of homeostasis of bone and mineral metabolism, but it can also provide nonskeletal actions because vitamin D receptors have been found in various tissues including the brain, prostate, breast, colon, pancreas, and immune cells. (scribd.com)
  • Vitamin D is a pro-hormone that plays an essential role in the vasculature and in kidney function. (mdpi.com)
  • Vitamin D is a pro-hormone and plays an essential role in a vast number of physiologic processes and clinical consequences [ 1 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Menopause represents an important transition in vitamin D requirements due to the dependence of the VDR on oestrogen [ 2 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • The appropriate concentration of vitamin D is important in many diseases, including abdominal obesity, type-2 diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia [3, (termedia.pl)
  • It should be noted that free vitamin D, although it constitutes only a small percentage (0.1-2%) of the total vitamin in all forms in the human body, is characterized by high biological activity (in accordance with the "free hormone hypothesis", only unbound molecules can freely migrate through cell membranes and cause particular metabolic effects) . (termedia.pl)
  • Bone
  • The objective of the 221-patient Phase 2 clinical trial was to assess safety and evaluate the effect of three doses of BA058 on bone formation markers and on lumbar spine and femoral neck BMD over six months relative to placebo. (drugs.com)
  • Forteo(R), a form of parathyroid hormone, is the only anabolic (bone-building) agent approved for marketing by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of osteoporosis in women and men at high risk of fracture. (drugs.com)
  • Lymphoma (lymposarcoma) in animals is a type of cancer defined by a proliferation of malignant lymphocytes within solid organs such as the lymph nodes, bone marrow, liver and spleen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Multicentric lymphoma, the most common type (by greater than 80 percent), is found in the lymph nodes, with or without involvement in the liver, spleen, or bone marrow. (wikipedia.org)
  • Enchondromatosis
  • Enchondromatosis, Multiple, Ollier Type, also known as enchondromatosis , is related to carpotarsal osteochondromatosis and hereditary multiple osteochondromatosis, type i , and has symptoms including anemia , platyspondyly and hemangioma . (malacards.org)
  • Defects in this receptor are known to be the cause of Jansen's metaphyseal chondrodysplasia (JMC), chondrodysplasia Blomstrand type (BOCD), as well as enchondromatosis and primary failure of tooth eruption. (wikipedia.org)
  • pancreatic
  • Defects in pancreatic β-cell function, insulin sensitivity, and systemic inflammation all contribute to the development of type 2 DM. (scribd.com)
  • regulation
  • Type 2 pseudohypoparathyroidism occurs due to alteration of the regulation of the Gs-α. (medicalrealm.net)
  • Although regulation of fat stores is deemed to be the primary function of leptin, it also plays a role in other physiological processes, as evidenced by its multiple sites of synthesis other than fat cells, and the multiple cell types beside hypothalamic cells that have leptin receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • kidney
  • Thiazide (/ˈθaɪəzaɪd/) is a type of molecule and a class of diuretics often used to treat hypertension (high blood pressure) and edema (such as that caused by heart failure, liver failure, or kidney failure). (wikipedia.org)
  • induces
  • In 1985, Bruce A. Beutler and Anthony Cerami discovered that cachectin (a hormone which induces cachexia) was actually TNF. (wikipedia.org)
  • More recently, research in the Laboratory of Mark Mattson has shown that TNF can prevent the death/apoptosis of neurons by a mechanism involving activation of the transcription factor NF-kappaB which induces the expression of Mn-SOD and Bcl-2. (wikipedia.org)
  • functional
  • but the leptin does not turn on the leptin receptor, hence the patient has functional leptin deficiency. (wikipedia.org)
  • The binding of TNF to its receptor and its displacement by LT confirmed the functional homology between the two factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • diabetes
  • The incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (type 2 DM) is increasing at an alarming rate both nationally and worldwide. (scribd.com)
  • Mutation of ob results in profound obesity and type II diabetes as part of a syndrome that resembles morbid obesity in humans. (labome.org)
  • Metabolic syndrome includes a number of disorders whose coexistence increases the risk of development of, among others, atherosclerotic cardiovascular system diseases and type-2 diabetes mellitus. (termedia.pl)
  • In obesity, similar to resistance of insulin in type 2 diabetes, a decreased sensitivity to leptin occurs, resulting in an inability to detect satiety despite high energy stores. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thiazides have also been replaced by angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors in Australia due to their propensity to increase risk of diabetes mellitus type 2. (wikipedia.org)
  • high
  • Common complications like vascular (VC) and mitral valve calcification are clinically observed as changes in intima media thickness (IMT), coronary artery calcification, pulse pressure, or pulse wave velocity and have been implicated with the high cardiovascular mortality incidences observed [ 2 , 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • In a chronic study, BP was measured in freely moving rats using telemetry during normal and high sodium intake (2% NaCl as drinking water for 2 wk). (physiology.org)
  • The cancer is classified into low and high grade types. (wikipedia.org)
  • obesity
  • Type 1 pseudohypoparathyroidism may present with Albright hereditary osteodystrophy which consists of symptoms and signs such as shortened fourth and fifth metacarpal and metartasal bones, obesity, mental retardation and short stature. (medicalrealm.net)
  • mutation
  • Blood levels of parathryoid hormone (PTH) are undetectable, but the mutation in the PTHR1 leads to auto-activation of the signaling as though the hormone PTH is present. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1949, a non-obese mouse colony being studied at the Jackson Laboratory produced a strain of obese offspring, suggesting that a mutation had occurred in a hormone regulating hunger and energy expenditure. (wikipedia.org)
  • increases
  • The incidence of type 2 DM is increasing worldwide and results from a lack of insulin or inadequate insulin secretion following increases in insulin resistance. (scribd.com)
  • cells
  • It is produced chiefly by activated macrophages, although it can be produced by many other cell types such as CD4+ lymphocytes, NK cells, neutrophils, mast cells, eosinophils, and neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for antigen receptor rearrangements (PARR) identifies circulating tumour cells based on unique genetic sequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • These cells are small, and appear dark when loaded with parathyroid hormone, and clear when the hormone has been secreted, or in their resting state. (wikipedia.org)
  • The small, dark cells are chief cells, which are responsible for secreting parathyroid hormone. (wikipedia.org)