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  • normal
  • it explained the phenotypic expression of the disease, and it initiated an ongoing effort to explain the normal physiologic functions of the receptor. (uptodate.com)
  • Mice
  • Consistent with Coleman's and Leibel's hypothesis, several subsequent studies from Leibel's and Friedman's labs and other groups confirmed that the ob gene encoded a novel hormone that circulated in blood and that could suppress food intake and body weight in ob and wild type mice, but not in db mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene encodes
  • Subsequent studies in 1995 confirmed that the db gene encodes the leptin receptor, and that it is expressed in the hypothalamus, a region of the brain known to regulate the sensation of hunger and body weight. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chronic Kidney
  • Adenomatous Colon Polyps in Diabetes: Increased Prevalence in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease and Its Association with Parathyroid Hormone. (nih.gov)
  • Consistent with this, elevated FGF23 levels are associated with inflammatory markers as well as parathyroid hormone (PTH) in various disease states, including chronic kidney disease (CKD). (readbyqxmd.com)
  • hydroxyl group
  • Because cholecalciferol already has one hydroxyl group, only two (1,25) are further specified in this nomenclature, but there are three (1,3,25-triol), as indicated in when calcitriol is used. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dimeric
  • Sequential inter- and intrasubunit rearrangements during activation of dimeric metabotropic glutamate receptor 1. (jove.com)
  • Nuclear
  • There is also evidence for alternative translation initiation from non-AUG (CUG and GUG) start sites, in-frame and downstream of the initiator AUG codon, to give rise to nuclear forms of this hormone. (wikipedia.org)
  • occurs
  • Amplification of the signal occurs for instance because the receptor activates several Gs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Parathyroid cancer occurs in midlife at the same rate in men and women. (wikipedia.org)
  • In obesity, similar to resistance of insulin in type 2 diabetes, a decreased sensitivity to leptin occurs, resulting in an inability to detect satiety despite high energy stores. (wikipedia.org)
  • antigen
  • Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for antigen receptor rearrangements (PARR) identifies circulating tumour cells based on unique genetic sequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • mammary
  • More recently, it was discovered that CSF-1 and its receptor CSF1R are implicated in the mammary gland during normal development and neoplastic growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • agonist
  • Studies have been amassed in the past several years indicating that an agonist can conform a receptor into an activation state that is dependent upon an intrinsic property of the agonist usually based upon its chemical composition. (aspetjournals.org)
  • regulation
  • The carboxy terminus is located on the intracellular side and contains sites for phosphorylation, which are used in the regulation of the receptor in desensitization and internalization. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Although regulation of fat stores is deemed to be the primary function of leptin, it also plays a role in other physiological processes, as evidenced by its multiple sites of synthesis other than fat cells, and the multiple cell types beside hypothalamic cells that have leptin receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Primary
  • Defects in this receptor are known to be the cause of Jansen's metaphyseal chondrodysplasia (JMC), chondrodysplasia Blomstrand type (BOCD), as well as enchondromatosis and primary failure of tooth eruption. (wikipedia.org)
  • Primary Antibodies-Rabbit Anti-Human eyes absent homolog 1 (EYA1) (EYA1- symmetric dimethyl arginine) IgG (aff pure)-Alpha Diagnostic International Inc. (4adi.com)
  • Primary Antibodies-Rabbit Anti-Mouse sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase 1 (SGPL1) IgG (aff pure)-Alpha Diagnostic International Inc. (4adi.com)
  • The two types of failure of eruption are primary failure of eruption and mechanical failure of eruption. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are two types of primary failure of eruption. (wikipedia.org)
  • bind
  • However, the terminology of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, or 1,25(OH)2D, is often used to refer to both types of active forms of vitamin D. Indeed, both bind to the vitamin D receptor and produce biological effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genes
  • A total of 1163 genes were identified as DEGs, including 617 downregulated (Lef1, lymphoid enhancer-binding factor 1) and 546 upregulated genes (Dkk1, Dickkopf-related protein 1). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Partial list of the genes located on p-arm (short arm) of human chromosome 3: ALAS1: aminolevulinate, delta-, synthase 1 APEH: encoding enzyme Acylamino-acid-releasing enzyme ARPP-21: Cyclic AMP-regulated phosphoprotein, 21 kDa AZI2: encoding protein 5-azacytidine-induced protein 2 BRK1: SCAR/WAVE actin nucleating complex subunit BRPF1: bromodomain and PHD finger containing 1 BTD: biotinidase C3orf14-Chromosome 3 open reading frame 14: predicted DNA binding protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • Studies on SOX3 gene mutations have demonstrated that it plays a role in parathyroid development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Consistent with Coleman's and Leibel's hypothesis, several subsequent studies from Leibel's and Friedman's labs and other groups confirmed that the ob gene encoded a novel hormone that circulated in blood and that could suppress food intake and body weight in ob and wild type mice, but not in db mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • Subsequent studies in 1995 confirmed that the db gene encodes the leptin receptor, and that it is expressed in the hypothalamus, a region of the brain known to regulate the sensation of hunger and body weight. (wikipedia.org)
  • This may lead to cell type-specific responses that include rapid non-genomic effects or slower genomic[disambiguation needed] responses where the hormones acting through their receptors activate gene transcription resulting in increased expression of target proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • ovaries
  • These hormones travel to the ovaries through the bloodstream and cause estrogen and progesterone to be produced by them and released into the body in fluctuating amounts with each menstrual cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane
  • By interacting with its membrane receptor (CSF1R or M-CSF-R encoded by the c-fms proto-oncogene), M-CSF also modulates the proliferation of earlier hematopoietic progenitors and influence numerous physiological processes involved in immunology, metabolism, fertility and pregnancy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hormones exit their cell of origin via exocytosis or another means of membrane transport. (wikipedia.org)
  • assay
  • Recombinant A2/B5 heterodimeric glycoproteins, purified using cation exchange and size fractionation chromatography, activated human TSH receptors, but not LH and FSH receptors, and showed high affinity to TSH receptors in a radioligand receptor assay. (jci.org)
  • insulin
  • In obesity, similar to resistance of insulin in type 2 diabetes, a decreased sensitivity to leptin occurs, resulting in an inability to detect satiety despite high energy stores. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some hormones are completely active when released into the bloodstream (as is the case for insulin and growth hormones), while others are prohormones that must be activated in specific cells through a series of activation steps that are commonly highly regulated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cellular recipients of a particular hormonal signal may be one of several cell types that reside within a number of different tissues, as is the case for insulin, which triggers a diverse range of systemic physiological effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hypothalamic
  • Although regulation of fat stores is deemed to be the primary function of leptin, it also plays a role in other physiological processes, as evidenced by its multiple sites of synthesis other than fat cells, and the multiple cell types beside hypothalamic cells that have leptin receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • mRNA
  • GHS receptor (GHS-R) mRNA has been identified mainly in the arcuate nucleus (Arc) and ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus and in the pituitary. (jci.org)
  • apical
  • Two morphologic types have been described: the open type, extending slender apical processes to the ductal or acinar lumen, and the closed type cells, which lack lumenal protrusions but display dendrite-like processes that extend between adjacent epithelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • ACTH
  • Aldosterone production is stimulated by angiotensin generation by renin, high serum potassium concentration, and, to a lesser extent, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). (renalandurologynews.com)
  • subunit
  • on a key part in regulating the transcription of GABAA receptor subunit genes. (cura-cancer.com)
  • We have uncovered the transcriptional rules of a number of excitatory neurotransmitter receptor genes [2 3 14 Deciphering the transcriptional rules of different inhibitory GABAA receptor subunit genes will be the next thing towards this understanding. (cura-cancer.com)
  • The purpose of the present research was to see whether the three main GABAA receptor subunit genes (GABAA α1) (GABAA α2) and (GABAA α3) are transcriptionally controlled with the same transcription aspect Sp4 as a number of the essential excitatory neurotransmitter receptor subunit genes. (cura-cancer.com)
  • 2.2 In silico evaluation of GABAA receptor subunit promoters Using DNAStar Lasergene 8 Collection - Sequence Constructor and. (cura-cancer.com)
  • Growth
  • M-CSF (or CSF-1) is a hematopoietic growth factor that is involved in the proliferation, differentiation, and survival of monocytes, macrophages, and bone marrow progenitor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The process is mediated by an assortment of hormones (and growth factors), the most important of which include estrogen, progesterone, prolactin, and growth hormone. (wikipedia.org)
  • These regulators induce the expression of growth factors, such as amphiregulin, epidermal growth factor (EGF), IGF-1, and fibroblast growth factor (FGF), which in turn have specific roles in breast growth and maturation. (wikipedia.org)
  • During puberty in females, estrogen, in conjunction with GH/IGF-1, through activation of ERα specifically (and notably not ERβ or GPER), causes growth of and transformation of the tubules into the matured ductal system of the breasts. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • Further, they found that vitamin D had a significant effect on the activity of 229 genes, including those associated with Crohn's Disease, Type 1 Diabetes, Systematic Lupus Erythematosus, Colorectal Cancer, Chronic Lymphocytic Leukaemia, Rheumatoid Arthritis, and Multiple Sclerosis. (naturalhealthperspective.com)
  • 1] In other words, vitamin D affects just about everything because it has the ability to turn on and off human genes that are associated with a large number of body functions and diseases. (naturalhealthperspective.com)
  • GnRH
  • At puberty, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) begins to be secreted, in a pulsatile manner, from the hypothalamus. (wikipedia.org)
  • differentiation
  • The most heavily studied aspect of neuroendocrine differentiation in prostate cancer (but not the only one, as mentioned above) is the focal type, which refers to a conventional prostatic adenocarcinoma that exhibits neuroendocrine foci at histopathological examination. (wikipedia.org)
  • As opposed to the focal type of neuroendocrine differentiation seen in prostatic adenocarcinoma, small cell carcinoma of the prostate, in turn, exhibit a universal type in that virtually all the constituent tumor cells display neuroendocrine features. (wikipedia.org)
  • embryonic
  • Studies have shown that activation of trophoblasitc CSF1R by local high levels of CSF-1 is essential for normal embryonic implantation and placental development. (wikipedia.org)
  • increases
  • Although IGF-1 is responsible for most of the role of GH in mediating breast development, GH itself has been found to play a direct, augmenting role as well, as it increases estrogen receptor (ER) expression in breast stromal (connective) tissue, while IGF-1, in contrast, has been found to not do this. (wikipedia.org)
  • mice
  • McCauley LK , Rosol TJ, Stromberg PC, Capen CC. In vivo and in vitro effects of interleukin-1 and cyclosporin A on bone and lymphoid tissues in mice. (dentisty.org)
  • Cells
  • Dexamethasone enhances the effects of parathyroid hormone (PTH) on human periodontal ligament (PDL) cells in vitro . (dentisty.org)
  • pre-coated with poly-L-lysine) at a thickness of 1×106 cells/well. (cura-cancer.com)
  • The noticed T-cell problems related with elevated reflection of designed cell loss of life 1 (PD-1) tiredness gun on these cells. (recyclers-info.com)
  • In addition, we demonstrated that chronic SCI rodents acquired higher amounts of splenic NE, which offered to the T-cell tiredness phenotype, as PD-1 reflection on both Compact disc4+ and Compact disc8+ T-cells was up-regulated pursuing suffered publicity to NE that PD-1 reflection is normally elevated on T-cells in Dapivirine manufacture existence of suffered amounts of NE. (recyclers-info.com)
  • Several cell types or tissues, e.g. osteoblasts, chondrocytes, cardiac tissue, gastrointestinal smooth muscle cells, and epithelial cells of some tissues normally do not express LECT2 but do so under a variety of disease conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The colony stimulating factor 1 (CSF1), also known as macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF), is a secreted cytokine which influences hematopoietic stem cells to differentiate into macrophages or other related cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • From the middle stage until term, the beta cells continue to increase in number until they reach an approximate 1:1 ratio with the alpha cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hormones affect distant cells by binding to specific receptor proteins in the target cell resulting in a change in cell function. (wikipedia.org)
  • The open type cells may in addition receive regulatory signals from luminal molecules The developmental origin of these cells is as yet unknown. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neuroendocrine tumor cells express cytokeratins that are typically expressed by luminal secretory type cells, but lack basal cell markers such as high molecular weight cytokeratin and p63. (wikipedia.org)
  • neuroendocrine
  • These types of prostate cancer comprise true neuroendocrine cancers, such as small cell carcinoma, carcinoid and carcinoid-like tumors, as well as prostatic adenocarcinoma exhibiting focal neuroendocrine phenotype. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • The liver changes cholecalciferol, or D-3, into 25(OH)D, the circulating form of vitamin D. Your kidneys changes the substrate 25(OH)D into 1,25(OH)2D, or the activated form of vitamin D. However, we now know that a wide variety of normal tissues, also, have the ability to make 1,25(OH)2D. (naturalhealthperspective.com)
  • human
  • Human thyrotropin (TSH), luteotropin (LH), follitropin (FSH), and chorionic gonadotropin are members of the heterodimeric glycoprotein hormone family. (jci.org)
  • Uterus
  • Additionally, high levels of CSF-1 expression are observed in the endometrial epithelium of the pregnant uterus as well as high levels of its receptor CSF1R in the placental trophoblast. (wikipedia.org)
  • leptin
  • At the suggestion of Roger Guillemin, Friedman named this new hormone "leptin" from the Greek lepto meaning thin. (wikipedia.org)