• vasoconstriction
  • 21 When stimulated, the ET A receptors induce vasoconstriction and cellular proliferation by increasing intracellular calcium. (ahajournals.org)
  • In normal states, it appears that stimulation of the ET A receptor on the smooth muscle cell causes vasoconstriction and mitogenic effects that are opposed by stimulation of the ET B receptor on the endothelial cell (see Figure 1 ). (ahajournals.org)
  • blood vessels
  • ET A receptors are found in the medial smooth muscle layers of the blood vessels, and atrial and ventricular myocardium. (ahajournals.org)
  • 11 This agrees with the prior demonstration of normal or only slightly depressed responses to ET-1 and the absence of important downregulation of endothelin receptors in blood vessels or smooth muscle cells of SHR. (ahajournals.org)
  • There are at least four known endothelin receptors, ETA, ETB1, ETB2 and ETC, all of which are G protein-coupled receptors whose activation result in elevation of intracellular-free calcium, which constricts the smooth muscles of the blood vessels, raising blood pressure, or relaxes the smooth muscles of the blood vessels, lowering blood pressure, among other functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Widely distributed in the body, receptors for endothelin are present in blood vessels and cells of the brain, choroid plexus and peripheral nerves. (wikipedia.org)
  • arterial
  • LPS administration significantly decreased arterial pressure and significantly increased plasma endothelin levels. (bmj.com)
  • Upon release, ET-1 can bind to the ET receptors that are expressed on arterial smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts in the lungs. (wikipedia.org)
  • peptides
  • The main differences in the family of endothelin and sarafotoxins appear at N-terminal of peptides, as C-terminal in all of them is almost the same. (wikipedia.org)
  • vasoconstrictive
  • In pathological states, however, there could be upregulation of the ET B receptors located on smooth muscle cells that function similar to the ET A receptor, which amplify the vasoconstrictive and mitogenic effects of ET-1. (ahajournals.org)