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  • hydroxyl radical
  • The hydroxyl radical is extremely reactive and immediately removes electrons from any molecule in its path, turning that molecule into a free radical and thus propagating a chain reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • After release, isoprene is converted by short-lived free radicals (like the hydroxyl radical) and to a lesser extent by ozone into various species, such as aldehydes, hydroperoxides, organic nitrates, and epoxides, which mix into water droplets and help create aerosols and haze. (wikipedia.org)
  • oxidants
  • Reactive oxygen species (ROSs) are oxidants produced in both health and disease by various processes, for example, from the phagocytic respiratory burst, during mitochondrial aerobic respiration, and as a by-product of both ischemia and reper-fusion. (springer.com)
  • damage
  • Their potential for damage also makes reactive oxygen species useful in direct protection from invading pathogens, as a defense response to physical injury, and as a mechanism for stopping the spread of bacteria and viruses by inducing programmed cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mitochondrial theory of aging proposes that reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated inside the cell will lead, with time, to increasing amounts of oxidative damage to various cell components. (pnas.org)
  • ROS (reactive oxygen species) and H 2 O 2 in excess can damage biological processes, and this situation has been documented in active vitiligo skin. (clinsci.org)
  • There are several types of damage to DNA due to endogenous cellular processes: oxidation of bases [e.g. 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-oxoG)] and generation of DNA strand interruptions from reactive oxygen species, alkylation of bases (usually methylation), such as formation of 7-methylguanosine, 1-methyladenine, 6-O-Methylguanine hydrolysis of bases, such as deamination, depurination, and depyrimidination. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a very important enzyme in protecting the cell from oxidative damage by reactive oxygen species (ROS). (wikipedia.org)
  • Plants
  • Reactive Oxygen Species in Plants: Boon Or Bane - Revisiting the Role of ROS begins by presenting the basic introduction to ROS and deciphers the detailed knowledge in ROS research. (wiley-vch.de)
  • Catalase is a common enzyme found in nearly all living organisms exposed to oxygen (such as bacteria, plants, and animals). (wikipedia.org)
  • Anthocyanins have an antioxidant role in plants against reactive oxygen species caused by abiotic stresses, such as overexposure to ultraviolet light and extreme temperatures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tomato plants protect against cold stress with anthocyanins countering reactive oxygen species, leading to a lower rate of cell death in leaves. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anthocyanins occur in the flowers of many plants, such as the famous blue poppies of some Meconopsis species and cultivars. (wikipedia.org)
  • A variety of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated by plants during times of stress (biotic and abiotic) including UV light, cool temperatures, excessive light, pathogens, parasites, and high salinity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Role
  • Alterations in normal signal transduction as a result of exposure to carcinogenic metals, and to metal-catalyzed reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, appear to play an important role in the etiology of metal-induced carcinogenesis. (cdc.gov)
  • toxic
  • This compound is a reactive aldehyde and is one of the many reactive electrophile species that cause toxic stress in cells and form covalent protein adducts referred to as advanced lipoxidation end-products (ALE), in analogy to advanced glycation end-products (AGE). (wikipedia.org)
  • genetic
  • Garden tomatoes have been subjected to a breeding program using introgression lines of genetically modified organisms (but not incorporating them in the final purple tomato) to define the genetic basis of purple coloration in wild species that originally were from Chile and the Galapagos Islands. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protein
  • Moreover, the biliary secretion of NO species was significantly diminished in UDCA-infused transport mutant [ATP-binding cassette C2/multidrug resistance-associated protein 2-deficient] rats, and this finding was consistent with the involvement of the glutathione carrier ABCC2/Mrp2 in the canalicular transport of GSNO. (wikipedia.org)
  • Exposure
  • Epidemiological data indicate that exposure to metal and metalloid species, including arsenic(III), chromium(VI), and nickel(II), increases the risk of cancer, particularly of the lung and skin. (cdc.gov)
  • biological
  • Although there is very little information on the biological generation of ROS in marine surface waters, several species of marine phytoplankton have recently been shown to release significant amounts of ROS into the environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • The main sources of biological superoxide in the ocean come from the reduction of oxygen at the cell surface and metabolites released into the water. (wikipedia.org)
  • naturally
  • Thus, during the night, little isoprene is emitted from tree leaves, whereas daytime emissions are expected to be substantial during hot and sunny days, up to 25 μg/(g dry-leaf-weight)/hour in many oak species The isoprene skeleton can be found in naturally occurring compounds called terpenes (also known as isoprenoids), but these compounds do not arise from isoprene itself. (wikipedia.org)
  • formation
  • Furthermore, several studies have demonstrated a correlation between the rate of ROS formation and maximal lifespan in various animal species ( 10 ). (pnas.org)