• urine
  • The objective of the present study was to evaluate sphingolipid levels (sphingosine-So and sphinganine-Sa) and to compare the Sa/So ratio in liver, serum and urine of Wistar rats after prolonged administration (21 days) of fumonisin B 1 (FB 1 ). (mdpi.com)
  • acute
  • Collectively, the data describe decreased adrenomedullary response to cholinergic stimulation in spontaneously diabetic rats as early as 2 weeks after the onset of diabetes and that a similar, although more severe, hyposecretion occurs after acute, severe hypoglycemia. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • mice
  • The most striking observation (Supplementary Table) is that Wistar rats and CD-1 mice are kept in the same housing room at Charles River GmbH (Personal communication, Charles River distributor, Scanbur employee), a particular concern to users of CD-1 mice from that supplier. (frontiersin.org)
  • While less commonly used for research than mice, rats have served as an important animal model for research in psychology and biomedical science. (wikipedia.org)
  • This was the first in a series of development that have begun to make rats tractable as genetic research subjects, although they still lag behind mice, which lend themselves better to the embryonic stem cell techniques typically used for genetic manipulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many investigators who wish to trace observations on behavior and physiology to underlying genes regard aspects of these in rats as more relevant to humans and easier to observe than in mice, giving impetus to the development of genetic research techniques applicable to rat. (wikipedia.org)
  • and C57BL/6N mice and Wistar rats (mammals) via the PGP gene product. (wikipedia.org)
  • liver
  • Some of the liver drug metabolizing and detoxifying enzymes were depleted under toxic conditions compared with non-toxic rats. (mdpi.com)
  • adrenal
  • We have demonstrated previously that spontaneously diabetic BB-Wistar rats exhibit decreased adrenal medullary catecholamine secretion in response to splanchnic nerve terminal stimulation. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • To study this hypothesis, we isolated adrenal glands from control and spontaneously diabetic BB-Wistar rats, perfused them with ACh, and measured catecholamine secretion. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Adrenal catecholamine release in response to ACh was significantly decreased at 2, 8, and 16 weeks after the onset of diabetes compared with age-matched, nondiabetic control rats. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Domestic rats differ from wild rats in many ways: they are calmer and significantly less likely to bite, they can tolerate greater crowding, they breed earlier and produce more offspring, and their brains, livers, kidneys, adrenal glands, and hearts are smaller. (wikipedia.org)
  • There were even significant variations in the incidences of adrenal medulla tumors among rats from the same source raised in different laboratories. (wikipedia.org)
  • toxicity
  • It is evident that the percentages of oxidative stress and immunity-related proteins were up-regulated in toxicity-induced rats as compared with nontoxic and control rats. (mdpi.com)
  • single
  • Direito GM, Almeida AP, Aquino S, Alves dos Reis T, Rodrigues Pozzi C, Corrêa B. Evaluation of Sphingolipids in Wistar Rats Treated to Prolonged and Single Oral Doses of Fumonisin B 1 . (mdpi.com)
  • Genetic analysis of 117 albino rat strains collected from all parts of the world carried out by a team led by Takashi Kuramoto at Kyoto University in 2012, showed that the albino rats descended from hooded rats and all the albino rats descended from a single ancestor. (wikipedia.org)
  • commonly
  • Rat-catchers would not only make money by trapping the rodents, but also by selling them for food, or more commonly, for rat-baiting. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • The first rat colony in America used for nutrition research was started in January 1908 by Elmer McCollum, and then nutritive requirements of rats were used by Thomas Burr Osborne and Lafayette Mendel to determine the details of protein nutrition. (wikipedia.org)
  • response
  • The decreased responsiveness of diabetic rat adrenals to perfusion with ACh was significantly correlated with a decrease in the release of catecholamines in response to splanchnic nerve stimulation. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • administration
  • Conversely, nondiabetic BB-Wistar rats made diabetic with streptozocin (STZ) and maintained in a hyperglycemic state did not exhibit catecholamine hyposecretion 2 weeks after STZ administration. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • period
  • In Japan, there was a widespread practice of keeping rats as a domesticated pet during the Edo period and in the 18th century guidebooks on keeping domestic rats were published by Youso Tamanokakehashi (1775) and Chingan Sodategusa (1787). (wikipedia.org)
  • A neuroontogeny experiment was conducted to investigate space flight effects on the sensory development of rats that spent part of their prenatal gestation period in space. (wikipedia.org)
  • Institute
  • The reproductive function of rats was studied at Institute for Experimental Biology at University of California, Berkeley by Herbert McLean Evans and Joseph A. Long. (wikipedia.org)
  • The genetics of rats was studied by William Ernest Castle at the Bussey Institute of Harvard University until it closed in 1994. (wikipedia.org)
  • less
  • The wires had to be anchored to reduce the probability of the rats' removal of the sensor, but the sensors showed less variation in glucose sensitivity over time than prior biosensors. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)