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  • tumors
  • Eighty-seven per cent of all tumors appeared after the rats were 540 days of age, and the mean lifespan after a tumor was first observed was 140 days. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Play media A 1972 study compared neoplasms in "Sprague-Dawley" rats from six different commercial suppliers and found highly significant differences in the incidences of endocrine and mammary tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • There were even significant variations in the incidences of adrenal medulla tumors among rats from the same source raised in different laboratories. (wikipedia.org)
  • mice
  • The rat had been on a 12hour light:dark cycle (lights on at 07:00) and had access ad libitum to drinking water and a diet of commercially available cubes for mice (Epol, South Africa). (scielo.org.za)
  • While less commonly used for research than mice, rats have served as an important animal model for research in psychology and biomedical science. (wikipedia.org)
  • This was the first in a series of development that have begun to make rats tractable as genetic research subjects, although they still lag behind mice, which lend themselves better to the embryonic stem cell techniques typically used for genetic manipulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many investigators who wish to trace observations on behavior and physiology to underlying genes regard aspects of these in rats as more relevant to humans and easier to observe than in mice, giving impetus to the development of genetic research techniques applicable to rat. (wikipedia.org)
  • significantly
  • Serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen levels were also significantly increased in rats intoxicated with GO compared with the control group. (mdpi.com)
  • Domestic rats differ from wild rats in many ways: they are calmer and significantly less likely to bite, they can tolerate greater crowding, they breed earlier and produce more offspring, and their brains, livers, kidneys, adrenal glands, and hearts are smaller. (wikipedia.org)
  • dose
  • These results revealed that a 14-day repeated oral dose of 1,3-DCP was minimally embryotoxic but not teratogenic at a maternal toxic dose (90mg/kg/day), and was not embryotoxic at a minimally maternal toxic dose (30mg/kg/day) in rats. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • male
  • Related studies with a smaller number of animals indicated that male rats of the same strain were 5 times less susceptible to tumor formation than females. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Twenty-three male rats were trained daily, for 24 days, on a nicotine self-administration (SA) paradigm in the morning, and on a four-conditioned-stimuli Pavlovian conditioned approach (4-CS PCA) task in the afternoon. (springer.com)
  • Because there are potentially significant drawbacks associated with plethysmography, we determined whether blood pressure changes could be detected by long-term monitoring with telemetry in age-matched male Sprague-Dawley rats fed either a normal or high-fructose diet for 8 weeks. (biomedsearch.com)
  • humans
  • Studies in rats have shown that p-cresol is primarily conjugated with glucuronide to produce p-cresylglucuronide, though this may not be applicable to humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • lipid
  • There was a significant elevation in the levels of hydrogen peroxide and lipid hydro peroxide in GOs-treated rats compared to control animals. (mdpi.com)
  • diet
  • One hundred similar rats on a special fatrich diet developed an 80 per cent tumor incidence. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The no-observed-effect-level (NOEL) for carcinogenicity of cyadox fed to rats was 2000 mg/kg diet (132.18-156.28 mg/kg b.w./day). (ovid.com)
  • commonly
  • Rat-catchers would not only make money by trapping the rodents, but also by selling them for food, or more commonly, for rat-baiting. (wikipedia.org)
  • research
  • The first rat colony in America used for nutrition research was started in January 1908 by Elmer McCollum, and then nutritive requirements of rats were used by Thomas Burr Osborne and Lafayette Mendel to determine the details of protein nutrition. (wikipedia.org)
  • decrease
  • ECM rats also showed a decrease of glucose and total CO 2 levels and an increase of creatinine levels compared to control rats or rats with no ECM. (plos.org)
  • response
  • We propose that previous reports of fructose-induced hypertension reflect a heightened stress response by fructose-fed rats associated with restraint and tail cuff inflation. (biomedsearch.com)
  • found
  • Atomoxetine has been found to act as an NMDA receptor antagonist in rat cortical neurons at therapeutic concentrations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Popular
  • Rat-baiting was a popular sport which involved filling a pit with rats and timing how long it took for a terrier to kill them all. (wikipedia.org)
  • increase
  • Atomoxetine's ability to increase prefrontal cortex firing rate in anesthetized rats could not be blocked by D1 or α2-adrenergic receptor antagonists, but could be potentiated by NMDA or an α1-adrenergic receptor antagonist, suggesting a glutamatergic mechanism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Among
  • Among the ECM rats, 77.8% died between day 5 and day 12 post-infection, while the remaining rats were spontaneously cured of neurological signs within 24-48 hours. (plos.org)
  • less
  • The animal attendant indicated that he had not noticed any untoward behaviour or sickness in the rat during the previous cage change 48 hours earlier However, about 12 hours before death the rat was less active than usual. (scielo.org.za)
  • Techniques
  • Our rat hepatocytes are prepared using the same careful isolation and cryopreservation techniques as our human lots. (thermofisher.com)
  • potential
  • Although uterine torsion is a rare condition in rats, it should be considered as a potential complication of gestation in animal breeding units. (scielo.org.za)
  • Developmental toxic potential of 1,3-dichloro-2-propanol in Sprague-Dawley rats. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • To investigate the potential carcinogenicity of cyadox, an antimicrobial agent, four groups of Sprague-Dawley rats (50 rats/sex/group) were fed diets containing cyadox (0, 200, 600 or 2000 mg/kg) for up to two years. (ovid.com)
  • albino rats
  • Genetic analysis of 117 albino rat strains collected from all parts of the world carried out by a team led by Takashi Kuramoto at Kyoto University in 2012, showed that the albino rats descended from hooded rats and all the albino rats descended from a single ancestor. (wikipedia.org)
  • wild rats
  • One theory is that running simulates foraging, a natural behavior in wild rats. (wikipedia.org)
  • Domestic rats differ from wild rats in many ways: they are calmer and significantly less likely to bite, they can tolerate greater crowding, they breed earlier and produce more offspring, and their brains, livers, kidneys, adrenal glands, and hearts are smaller. (wikipedia.org)
  • neurons
  • We have shown that glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) shows robust restorative and protective effects for DA neurons in rats, non-human primates and possibly in humans. (uky.edu)
  • We tested the in vitro effects of DNSP-5 in primary dopaminergic neurons dissected from the ventral mesencephalon of E14 Sprague Dawley rat fetuses. (uky.edu)
  • Upregulation of death pathway molecules in rat cerebellar granule neurons undergoing apoptosis. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Avpr1a transcripts are diurnally expressed 12 hours out of phase from vasopressin expression in vasopressin and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide neurons of the suprachiasmatic nucleus in both vasopressin-normal Sprague-Dawley rats, as well as vasopressin-deficient Brattleboro rats. (wikipedia.org)
  • cisplatin
  • Therefore, the present study aimed to study the possible protective effect of rutin against nephrotoxicity induced by cisplatin in rats. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Rats of group 1 control group intraperitoneal (i.p.) received 2.5 ml/kg, group 2 CP group received single dose 5 mg/kg cisplatin i.p. group 3 rutin group orally received 30 mg/kg rutin group 4 (CP plus rutin) received CP and rutin as in group 2 and 3. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The cisplatin single dose administration to rats induced nephrotoxicity associated with a significant increase in blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine and significantly increase Malondialdehyde (MDA) in kidney tissues by 230 ± 5.5 nmol/g compared to control group. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Rats were induced to intake kaolin by administering various emetic stimuli such as copper sulfate, apomorphine, cisplatin, and motion. (wikipedia.org)
  • humans
  • When PIO was first approved in the USA, a preclinical study [ 2 ] showed the occurrence of bladder cancer in male rats after PIO treatment, and early clinical studies including the prospective PROspective PioglitAzone Clinical Trial In MacroVascular Events Outcome clinical trial (PROactive, 2005) showed a possible safety risk in humans [ 3 - 6 ]. (medsci.org)
  • Many investigators who wish to trace observations on behavior and physiology to underlying genes regard aspects of these in rats as more relevant to humans and easier to observe than in mice, giving impetus to the development of genetic research techniques applicable to rat. (wikipedia.org)
  • mice
  • While less commonly used for research than mice, rats have served as an important animal model for research in psychology and biomedical science. (wikipedia.org)
  • This was the first in a series of development that have begun to make rats tractable as genetic research subjects, although they still lag behind mice, which lend themselves better to the embryonic stem cell techniques typically used for genetic manipulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • male
  • Sixty-five male Sprague-Dawley rats (Charles River, Wilmington, Mass) ranging in weight from 300 to 375 g were used in these studies. (ahajournals.org)
  • Unusual cancer called Schwannoma, cancer of the heart, in male rats has been caused by electromagnetic radiation. (collective-evolution.com)
  • Since GAL coexists with vasopressin and CRH in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), we have studied the pharmacological and physiological actions of GAL on ACTH and TSH secretion in freely moving male rats. (uclouvain.be)
  • widely
  • Two-vessel occlusion (2-VO), also known as permanent, bilateral common carotid artery occlusion, is one of the most widely used animal models ( e.g ., rat) of CCH to investigate the mechanisms of neurodegenerative processes. (bio-protocol.org)
  • given
  • In fact, if rats are first trained to the feeding schedule and then given unrestricted access to a running wheel, they will not develop AA behavior. (wikipedia.org)
  • control
  • In the 2-VO rat model, there is a dramatic decrease in CBF to the brain during the acute ischemic phase (2-3 days post-operation) and the cortical and white matter areas have the largest decrease in blood flow, reaching 35%-45% of the control level (Otori et al . (bio-protocol.org)
  • brain
  • To better understand the relationship between the brain renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and endocannabinoid expression within the NTS, we measured dorsal medullary endocannabinoid tissue content and the effects of CB1 receptor blockade at this brain site on cardiac baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) in ASrAOGEN rats with low glial angiotensinogen, normal Sprague-Dawley rats and (mRen2)27 rats with upregulated brain RAS expression. (rti.org)
  • Cannulae were surgically implanted in the right atria and brain, intraventricular or adjacent to the PVN, of adult Sprague-Dawley rats. (uclouvain.be)
  • commercial
  • Play media A 1972 study compared neoplasms in "Sprague-Dawley" rats from six different commercial suppliers and found highly significant differences in the incidences of endocrine and mammary tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Animals
  • citation needed] Despite the criticisms associated with using animals to research essentially human conditions, Sagvolden supported his Dynamic Developmental Theory of ADHD using research primarily done using Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats. (wikipedia.org)
  • studies
  • Studies on the effects of overcrowding were conducted in the 1940s by placing pregnant Norway rats in a room with plenty of water and food and observing the population growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • model
  • In rats, scopolamine is used to model memory impairment. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] The Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat (SHR) is also used as a model of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. (wikipedia.org)
  • Research by Terje Sagvolden suggested that rats sourced from Charles River Laboratories perform as the best model. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] The Spontaneous Hypertensive Rat is also a model for anxiety. (wikipedia.org)
  • thus
  • Zinc deuteroporphyrin 2,4-bis glycol (ZnDPBG) inhibits heme oxygenase in rats and thus permits assessment of the hemodynamic response to inhibition of endogenous carbon monoxide synthesis. (ahajournals.org)
  • 9 10 11 ZnDPBG has been shown to inhibit endogenous carbon monoxide production in rats 12 and thus permits the physiological actions of heme oxygenase activity to be studied in vivo. (ahajournals.org)
  • Function
  • The reproductive function of rats was studied at Institute for Experimental Biology at University of California, Berkeley by Herbert McLean Evans and Joseph A. Long. (wikipedia.org)
  • change
  • Microinjection of the CB1receptor antagonist SR141716A (36 pmol) into the NTS did not change cardiac BRS in anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats (1.04 ± 0.05 ms/mmHg baseline vs. 1.17 ± 0.11 ms/mmHg after 10 min). (rti.org)
  • food
  • Activity anorexia (AA) is a condition where rats begin to exercise excessively while simultaneously cutting down on their food intake, similar to human anorexia nervosa or hypergymnasia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Also, if rats are restricted both in food intake and wheel access, they will adjust accordingly. (wikipedia.org)
  • Even though there was plenty of water and food, the rats stopped eating and reproducing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rat-catchers would not only make money by trapping the rodents, but also by selling them for food, or more commonly, for rat-baiting. (wikipedia.org)
  • different
  • There were even significant variations in the incidences of adrenal medulla tumors among rats from the same source raised in different laboratories. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • V1AR is also known as: V1a vasopressin receptor antidiuretic hormone receptor 1A SCCL vasopressin subtype 1a receptor V1-vascular vasopressin receptor AVPR1A vascular/hepatic-type arginine vasopressin receptor Human AVPR1A cDNA is 1472 bp long and encodes a 418 amino-acid long polypeptide which shares 72%, 36%, 37%, and 45% sequence identity with rat Avpr1a, human AVPR2, rat Avpr2, and human oxytocin receptor (OXTR), respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • research
  • The first rat colony in America used for nutrition research was started in January 1908 by Elmer McCollum, and then nutritive requirements of rats were used by Thomas Burr Osborne and Lafayette Mendel to determine the details of protein nutrition. (wikipedia.org)