• strains
  • With the use of the tail flick model, dose-response curves were constructed to codeine, morphine, oxycodone and oxymorphone (the O-demethylated metabolite of oxycodone) in both rat strains. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Genetic analysis of 117 albino rat strains collected from all parts of the world carried out by a team led by Takashi Kuramoto at Kyoto University in 2012, showed that the albino rats descended from hooded rats and all the albino rats descended from a single ancestor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Scientists have bred many strains or "lines" of rats specifically for experimentation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other common strains are the Sprague Dawley, Fischer 344, Holtzman albino strains, Long-Evans, and Lister black hooded rats. (wikipedia.org)
  • cortex
  • However, both mouse and rat microdialysis studies have failed to find an increase in extracellular serotonin in the prefrontal cortex following acute or chronic atomoxetine treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Atomoxetine's ability to increase prefrontal cortex firing rate in anesthetized rats could not be blocked by D1 or α2-adrenergic receptor antagonists, but could be potentiated by NMDA or an α1-adrenergic receptor antagonist, suggesting a glutamatergic mechanism. (wikipedia.org)
  • mice
  • The rat had been on a 12hour light:dark cycle (lights on at 07:00) and had access ad libitum to drinking water and a diet of commercially available cubes for mice (Epol, South Africa). (scielo.org.za)
  • While less commonly used for research than mice, rats have served as an important animal model for research in psychology and biomedical science. (wikipedia.org)
  • This was the first in a series of development that have begun to make rats tractable as genetic research subjects, although they still lag behind mice, which lend themselves better to the embryonic stem cell techniques typically used for genetic manipulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many investigators who wish to trace observations on behavior and physiology to underlying genes regard aspects of these in rats as more relevant to humans and easier to observe than in mice, giving impetus to the development of genetic research techniques applicable to rat. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1994
  • The genetics of rats was studied by William Ernest Castle at the Bussey Institute of Harvard University until it closed in 1994. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutation
  • Interestingly, an INDEL mutation in HIF1α was found in all SD rats, both in HR and non-HR. However, mutations in PTTG1 and CGNL1 genes were present only in the HR SD rats. (ahajournals.org)
  • In addition, HR rats showed exacerbated hemodynamic response to CH as compared to the non-HR SD rats (RVSP: 72±5 mmHg vs. 49±4 mmHg) consistent with increased hypoxia signaling and a gain-of-function HIF1α mutation. (ahajournals.org)
  • A previously unrecognized mutation in HIF1α in SD rats is associated with increased susceptibility to severe PAH, which requires the presence of mutations in additional unique modifier genes. (ahajournals.org)
  • strain
  • Related studies with a smaller number of animals indicated that male rats of the same strain were 5 times less susceptible to tumor formation than females. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Our lab has identified a unique sub-strain of SD rats that is hyper-responsive (HR) to SU5416 (SU) alone and develops severe progressive PAH in response to single injection of SU, even in absence of chronic hypoxia (CH). (ahajournals.org)
  • A chief criticism was that each part of the study had too few rats to obtain statistically useful data, particularly because the strain of rat used, Sprague Dawley, develops tumors at a high rate over its lifetime. (wikipedia.org)
  • humans
  • Studies in rats have shown that p-cresol is primarily conjugated with glucuronide to produce p-cresylglucuronide, though this may not be applicable to humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • significantly
  • In addition, the epidydimal adipose tissue weight of the rats fed on PHGG was significantly higher than that of the rats fed on cellulose. (go.jp)
  • The IgA and IgG productivity in mesenteric lymph node (MLN) lymphocytes was significantly higher in the rats fed on guar gum, glucomannan and pectin than in those fed on cellulose, while the effect on Ig productivity in spleen lymphocytes was not as marked. (go.jp)
  • Thirty-day-old PCB treated rats displayed significantly elevated leptin levels and depressed triiodothyronine concentrations. (osu.edu)
  • Young adult rats exposed to PCB for 21 days displayed significantly depressed leptin concentrations, however PCB had no effect on thyroid hormones in this group. (osu.edu)
  • We also observed significantly higher HIF1α and BNIP3 (a downstream target of HIF1α) expression in the lungs of HR SD rats. (ahajournals.org)
  • The highest dose of DHEA (600 ppm) significantly decreased tumor incidence from 95 to 45% and increased tumor latency and decreased tumor multiplicity from 4.1 to 0.5 tumors/rat. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Domestic rats differ from wild rats in many ways: they are calmer and significantly less likely to bite, they can tolerate greater crowding, they breed earlier and produce more offspring, and their brains, livers, kidneys, adrenal glands, and hearts are smaller. (wikipedia.org)
  • colony
  • The first rat colony in America used for nutrition research was started in January 1908 by Elmer McCollum, and then nutritive requirements of rats were used by Thomas Burr Osborne and Lafayette Mendel to determine the details of protein nutrition. (wikipedia.org)
  • study
  • This one-generation study assessed the potential of esterified propoxylated glycerol (EPG) to affect reproduction and offspring development in rats. (rti.org)
  • In the present study 15-and 30-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed gestationally and lactationally to 1.25 ppm of Aroclor 1254®, a mixture of 52 PCB congeners, via maternal diet, to determine the effect on leptin and thyroid hormones. (osu.edu)
  • The aim of the study was to test whether the DA rat and the SD rat pretreated with the CYP2D1 inhibitor quinine showed attenuation in analgesia to codeine and oxycodone. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In this study, we evaluated metformin in rats placed on either standard diet (4% fat) or a Western diet (20% fat, low calcium). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The rats were placed on standard diet or Western diet at 43 days of age, given MNU (via the jugular vein) once at 50 days of age, and administered metformin or vehicle at 57 days of age for the remainder of the study. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This study concluded that the three crops caused liver, kidney and heart damage in the rats. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • The French Society of Toxicologic Pathology pointed out that, because such tumors are commonly found in older rats, the inclusion in the article of those images from treated rats, without also showing control rats, was misleading. (wikipedia.org)
  • commonly
  • Rat-catchers would not only make money by trapping the rodents, but also by selling them for food, or more commonly, for rat-baiting. (wikipedia.org)
  • Research
  • Research on the effects of 2-furoic acid in rats showed an increase in bile salts and acute toxicity suggesting potential toxic effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • young
  • Kato M, Onodera T (1986) Observation on the development of osteochondrosis in young rats. (springer.com)
  • Single
  • Objective To explore possible electrophysiological mechanisms of single atrial myocyte by evaluating the effects of angiotensinII (AngII) and telmisartan on transient outward potassium currents (I to ) and L-type calcium currents (I Ca-L ) in Sprague-Dawley rats. (bmj.com)
  • Heart
  • It concluded that MON 863, a corn rootworm-resistant Bt corn developed by Monsanto, caused health problems in rats, including weight changes, triglyceride level increases in females, changes in urine composition in males, and reduced function or organ damage in the liver, kidney, adrenal glands, heart and haematopoietic system. (wikipedia.org)
  • days
  • Eighty-seven per cent of all tumors appeared after the rats were 540 days of age, and the mean lifespan after a tumor was first observed was 140 days. (aacrjournals.org)
  • changes
  • Kato M, Onodera T (1987) Early changes of osteo-chondrosis in medial femoral condyles from rats. (springer.com)
  • In rats a marginal iron deficiency that does not cause anemia disrupted axon growth in the auditory nerve affecting auditory brainstem latency without major changes in myelination. (wikipedia.org)
  • weight
  • The varied and striking efficacy of DHEA was achieved in the absence of any significant effect on body weight gain in the treated rats. (aacrjournals.org)
  • level
  • Conclusion AngII and telmisartan had directly electrophysiological effects on SD rat atrial myocytes as well as telmisartan had antagonist effects on AngII at the level of angiotensin receptor. (bmj.com)
  • Popular
  • Rat-baiting was a popular sport which involved filling a pit with rats and timing how long it took for a terrier to kill them all. (wikipedia.org)
  • less
  • The animal attendant indicated that he had not noticed any untoward behaviour or sickness in the rat during the previous cage change 48 hours earlier However, about 12 hours before death the rat was less active than usual. (scielo.org.za)
  • Techniques
  • Our rat hepatocytes are prepared using the same careful isolation and cryopreservation techniques as our human lots. (thermofisher.com)
  • Although
  • Although uterine torsion is a rare condition in rats, it should be considered as a potential complication of gestation in animal breeding units. (scielo.org.za)
  • period
  • Rats were treated with DHEA for a period of 7 weeks immediately before and after MNU injection. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In Japan, there was a widespread practice of keeping rats as a domesticated pet during the Edo period and in the 18th century guidebooks on keeping domestic rats were published by Youso Tamanokakehashi (1775) and Chingan Sodategusa (1787). (wikipedia.org)