• mice
  • In other studies, however, benzodiazepines did not change the defensive behavior of rats [ 6 , 10 ] or mice [ 1 , 10 ] exposed to cat odor. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Inductions of FABP in hepatic cytosol by administration of tiadenol and clofibric acid were studied in rats, mice and guinea-pigs. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In rats and mice, [1-14C]oleic acid-binding capacity of hepatic cytosol was increased, in association with induction of peroxisomal beta-oxidation, by the administration of either the two peroxisome proliferators. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The peroxisome proliferators caused an induction of acyl-CoA hydrolase of lower-molecular-weight form alone in hepatic cytosol of mice, although inductions of two long-chain acyl-CoA hydrolases (higher- and lower-molecular-weight form) were brought about in hepatic cytosol of rats. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Congenic strains are generated in the laboratory by mating two inbred strains (usually rats or mice), and back-crossing the descendants 5-10 generations with one of the original strains, known as the recipient strain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Congenic mice or rats can then be compared to the pure recipient strain to determine whether they are phenotypically different if selection was for a genotypic region, or to identify the critical genetic locus, if selection was for a phenotype. (wikipedia.org)
  • While less commonly used for research than mice, rats have served as an important animal model for research in psychology and biomedical science. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inbred strains are also available but are not as commonly used as inbred mice Much of the genome of Rattus norvegicus has been sequenced. (wikipedia.org)
  • This was the first in a series of development that have begun to make rats tractable as genetic research subjects, although they still lag behind mice, which lend themselves better to the embryonic stem cell techniques typically used for genetic manipulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many investigators who wish to trace observations on behavior and physiology to underlying genes regard aspects of these in rats as more relevant to humans and easier to observe than in mice, giving impetus to the development of genetic research techniques applicable to rat. (wikipedia.org)
  • Familiar albino animals include in-bred strains of laboratory animals (rats, mice, guinea-pigs and rabbits), but populations of naturally occurring albino animals exist in the wild, e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • Jackson Laboratory has additional features to maintaining mice, one can order mice that have been altered with genetic tools such as Gal4/UAS or CRISPR, meaning that even if the strain does not currently exist, you can still obtain a line of mouse that is useful to your research. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like the NOD mice, BB rats are used as an animal model for Type 1 diabetes. (wikipedia.org)
  • NOD mice Type 1 Diabetes Autoimmunity Mordes JP, Poussier P, Blankenhorn EP, Greiner DL: Rat models of type 1 diabetes: Genetics, environment and autoimmunity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recombinant inbred strains or lines were first developed using inbred strains of mice but are now used to study a wide range of organisms - Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast), Zea mays (maize), barley, Drosophila melanogaster, C. elegans and rat. (wikipedia.org)
  • By one estimate the number of mice and rats used in the United States alone in 2001 was 80 million. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mice, rats, fish, amphibians and reptiles together account for over 85% of research animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, researchers from the University of California, Davis were unable to reproduce Hornig's results despite using the same strain of mice and ten times the amount of mercury used in Hornig's study. (wikipedia.org)
  • Little and Castle collaborated closely with Abbie Lathrop who was a breeder of fancy mice and rats which she marketed to rodent hobbyists and keepers of exotic pets, and later began selling in large numbers to scientific researchers. (wikipedia.org)
  • The laboratory is also the world's source for more than 8,000 strains of genetically defined mice and is home of the Mouse Genome Informatics database. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a general rule, inbred mice tend to have longer gestation periods and smaller litters than outbred and hybrid mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • Wistar
  • Origin: Developed in 1972 at the Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Russian Academy of Sciences (Novosibirsk) by Salganik and Solovyova from Wistar stock by selection for susceptibility to cataractogenic effect of galactose-rich diet and brother-sister mating of highly susceptible rats ( Solovyova et al 1975 ). (jax.org)
  • 2. Longitudinal strips of the fundus from 20 week old male and female SHR and Wistar normotensive (NW) rats were used. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In the 80's the research group of Marguerite Vergnes at Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM) in Strasbourg (France) reported the spontaneous occurrence of spike-and-wave discharges (SWD) evocative of absence seizures in Wistar rats during cortical electroencephalographic (EE]) recordings. (wikipedia.org)
  • These initial observations led to the development of two breeding colonies: (i) a fully inbred strain of rats, with 100% of animals displaying the EEG and behavioral characteristics of absence seizures, derived from an outbred Wistar colony and called the Genetic Absence Epilepsy Rats from Strasbourg (GAERS) (ii) a strain of non epileptic control animals selected from the same initial breeding colony of Wistar rats and called the NEC. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most are derived from the albino Wistar rat, which is still widely used. (wikipedia.org)
  • They were originally derived from a Canadian colony of outbred Wistar rats that spontaneously develop hyperglycemia and ketoacidosis, characteristic of clinical onset of T1D. (wikipedia.org)
  • genotype
  • In this manner either an interesting phenotype, or a defined chromosomal region assayed by genotype, is passed from the donor strain onto an otherwise uniform recipient background. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inbred strains (also called inbred lines, or rarely for animals linear animals) are individuals of a particular species which are nearly identical to each other in genotype due to long inbreeding. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each strain has a single fixed genome and it is also possible to resample a given genotype multiple times in multiple environments to obtain highly accurate estimates of genetic and environmental effects and their interactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sprague-Dawley
  • The effects of the plasma pattern of GH on serum and lipoprotein levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I), apolipoprotein B 48/100 (apo B), and apolipoprotein E (apo E) were studied in hypophysectomized female Sprague-Dawley rats, which had been given replacement therapy with L-T4 and hydrocortisone. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Other common strains are the Sprague Dawley, Fischer 344, Holtzman albino strains, Long-Evans, and Lister black hooded rats. (wikipedia.org)
  • Play media A 1972 study compared neoplasms in "Sprague-Dawley" rats from six different commercial suppliers and found highly significant differences in the incidences of endocrine and mammary tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • rodents
  • Cotton rats combine the best traits of human-like lung granuloma formation (trait of rabbits) and inexpensive care (trait of other small rodents) to provide a suitable host for this type of study. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rat-catchers would not only make money by trapping the rodents, but also by selling them for food, or more commonly, for rat-baiting. (wikipedia.org)
  • A strain, in reference to rodents, is a group in which all members are as nearly as possible genetically identical. (wikipedia.org)
  • phenotypes
  • When F2 population was generated by breeding GAERS with Brown Norway rats, a polygenic inheritance of SWD-related phenotypes was shown and three quantitative trait loci were identified that could control different variables of SWDs (e.g., frequency, amplitude, duration). (wikipedia.org)
  • this very uniformity means that fewer individuals are required to produce results with the same level of statistical significance when an inbred line is used in comparison to an outbred line in the same experiment Breeding of inbred strains is often towards specific phenotypes of interest such as behavioural traits like alcohol preference or physical traits like aging. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1998
  • A study conducted in 1998 found that the tawny-bellied cotton rat can be infected by low-level HIV-1. (wikipedia.org)
  • locus
  • One type of inbred strain that either has been altered, or naturally mutated so that it is different at a single locus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The small panel of 8 CXB strains was originally used to determine if the Major Histocompatibility (MHC) locus on proximal chromosome 17 was a key factor in different immune responses such as tissue rejection. (wikipedia.org)
  • differences
  • This study hopes to provide answers to this, by showing if different ways of growing plants will result in differences in selected aspects of rat health. (orgprints.org)
  • However, no clear differences were found between the two strains tested. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The differences between female SHR and male SHR responses are not unexpected, considering the natural evolution of hypertension in Okamoto rats which is milder in the female. (biomedsearch.com)
  • generations
  • Speed congenics can be produced in as little as five back-cross generations, through the selection at each generation of offspring that not only retain the desired chromosomal fragment, but also 'lose' the maximum amount of background genetic information from the donor strain. (wikipedia.org)
  • A strain is inbred when it has undergone at least 20 generations of brother x sister or offspring x parent mating, at which point at least 98.6% of the loci in an individual of the strain will be homozygous, and each individual can be treated effectively as clones. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some inbred strains have been bred for over 150 generations, leaving individuals in the population to be isogenic in nature. (wikipedia.org)
  • colony
  • The first rat colony in America used for nutrition research was started in January 1908 by Elmer McCollum, and then nutritive requirements of rats were used by Thomas Burr Osborne and Lafayette Mendel to determine the details of protein nutrition. (wikipedia.org)
  • susceptible
  • Two inbred rat strains have been selected: the BN/hsdCpb which is characterised by a relatively low fertility and the GK/mol, a model susceptible for the development of non-insulin dependant diabetes (diabetes type II). (orgprints.org)
  • loci
  • The advantages of inbreeding may be the result of a tendency to preserve the structures of alleles interacting at different loci that have been adapted together by a common selective history. (wikipedia.org)
  • effects
  • Brandt, Kirsten and Ritskes-Hoitinga, Merel (2003) The effects of organically and conventionally cultivated plant feed on fertility and health in two inbred rat strains. (orgprints.org)
  • In this experiment we study the effects of various culturing methods of plant based foods on health and fertility parameters in a two-generation study in rats. (orgprints.org)
  • The effects and time course of a single injection of beta-bungarotoxin into E14 rat embryos were examined with an electron-microscopic study of development of the internal intercostal somatic nerve. (biomedsearch.com)
  • To further elucidate the role played by mitochondria in steroidogenesis, we examined the effects of the perturbation of the mitochondrial electron transport chain with myxothiazol (MYX) on testosterone production by primary cultures of Brown Norway rat Leydig cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The effects of lactation and ambient temperature on the body temperature of female Norway rats. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Differential effects of continuous versus intermittent administration of growth hormone to hypophysectomized female rats on serum lipoproteins and their apoproteins. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In plant breeding, inbred lines are used as stocks for the creation of hybrid lines to make use of the effects of heterosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Offspring of biologically related persons are subject to the possible effects of inbreeding, such as congenital birth defects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Laboratory rats are frequently subject to dissection or microdialysis to study internal effects on organs and the brain, such as for cancer or pharmacological research. (wikipedia.org)
  • maternal
  • The only exception is that the Y chromosome and the mitochondrial genome, both of which are inherited intact from the paternal and maternal strain, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • populations
  • however, because the increased proportion of deleterious homozygotes exposes the allele to natural selection, in the long run its frequency decreases more rapidly in inbred populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Norway
  • Taken as a whole, these results suggest that Norway rat dams apparently do not monitor and defend a maximal pup growth rate. (biomedsearch.com)
  • 1992
  • In 1992, due to new findings, the S symbol was assigned to this strain. (jax.org)
  • neonatal
  • Neonatal changes in fatty acid profile of phospholipids in rat heart muscle. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Neonatal stress and increased cardiac function play an important role in the modification of the fatty acid composition of rat heart muscle phospholipids during early development. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In the 1990s, Hornig helped to develop an infection-based model of neurodevelopmental disorders, such as autism and depression, based on neonatal rat infection with Borna disease virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • traits
  • Inbreeding results in homozygosity, which can increase the chances of offspring being affected by recessive or deleterious traits. (wikipedia.org)
  • An individual who inherits such deleterious traits is referred to as inbred. (wikipedia.org)
  • model
  • Based on that, a behavioral test in which rats are exposed to cat odor has been developed and proposed to model some forms of anxiety. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Therefore, this pair of rat strains provides a useful genetic model for the experimental study of anxiety. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The GAERS or Genetic Absence Epilepsy Rat from Strasbourg is a recognized animal model of Absence Epilepsy, a typical childhood form of Epilepsy characterized by recurrent loss of contact and concomitant pattern on the electroencephalogram called "spike-and-wave" discharges. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since then, the GAERS has been recognized as a very predictive model for Absence Epilepsy, along with the WAG/Rij rat model. (wikipedia.org)
  • Spontaneous paroxysmal electroclinical patterns in rat: a model of generalized non-convulsive epilepsy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antiepileptic drug evaluation in a new animal model: spontaneous petit mal epilepsy in the rat. (wikipedia.org)
  • NCLAS also came into the limelight due to the WNIN/Ob obese rat strain which is the heaviest inbred rat model available. (wikipedia.org)
  • normally
  • the strain designation, which is normally a number or a formal name, covers all the plants that descend from the originally modified plant. (wikipedia.org)
  • which is true of inbred strains, since they normally have at least 98.6% similarity by generation 20. (wikipedia.org)
  • depression
  • This generally leads to a decreased biological fitness of a population (called inbreeding depression), which is its ability to survive and reproduce. (wikipedia.org)
  • When deleterious recessive alleles are unmasked due to the increased homozygosity generated by inbreeding, this can cause inbreeding depression. (wikipedia.org)
  • With persistent inbreeding, there is evidence that shows that inbreeding depression becomes less severe. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, inbreeding depression is not a temporary phenomenon because this elimination of deleterious recessive alleles will never be complete. (wikipedia.org)
  • differ
  • Domestic rats differ from wild rats in many ways: they are calmer and significantly less likely to bite, they can tolerate greater crowding, they breed earlier and produce more offspring, and their brains, livers, kidneys, adrenal glands, and hearts are smaller. (wikipedia.org)
  • nuclear
  • The ability of brain cells to regulate intracellular pH (pHi) and several phosphate metabolites was evaluated during 1 h of hypercapnia (inspiratory CO2 fraction of 0.10 and 0.05) in anesthetized rats by 31P high-field (145.6 MHz) nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In October 2003, researchers succeeded in cloning two laboratory rats by nuclear transfer. (wikipedia.org)
  • study
  • The objective of the present study was to compare the LEW and SHR strains in the COT, with or without the presence of the predator's odor. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A light microscopical study of the morphogenesis of the gut in the rat embryo was undertaken to provide a careful map of temporal changes in the topographical relations of the (definitive) endoderm, the notochord and the hypoblast (primary endoderm). (biomedsearch.com)
  • responses
  • Zangrossi and File [ 11 ] reported that chlordiazepoxide reduced anxiety evaluated in the social interaction and elevated plus-maze tests after exposure to cat odor, but it had only a limited effect on the direct responses of rats exposed to cat odor. (biomedcentral.com)
  • different
  • These results suggest that the type of stress experienced by LEW and SHR strains exposed to cat odor is different from that elicited by exposure to classical models of anxiety such as the elevated plus-maze, black/white box and open-field tests. (biomedcentral.com)
  • There were even significant variations in the incidences of adrenal medulla tumors among rats from the same source raised in different laboratories. (wikipedia.org)
  • results
  • The Gimap5 mutation results in severe T cell lymphopenia in the BB rat and is thought to contribute to T1D pathogenesis through impaired development and function and regulatory T cells. (wikipedia.org)