• protein
  • Recombination studies using a novel tombusvirus three-component system revealed that mutations in RPR motif of p33 replicase protein resulted in an altered viral RNA recombination rate. (uky.edu)
  • Grafting infection experiments showed that resistant transgenic plants could be obtained with any of the constructs, suggesting that the mechanism of protection is independent of the expression of protein and is RNA mediated. (deepdyve.com)
  • The researchers developed "RNA aptamers" which bind tightly to the part of that protein that performs the catalysis, disabling the replicase. (asm.org)
  • RNA1 sequence encodes for the virus' RNA-dependand RNA polymerase which is protein A. Thee virion also contains code for RNA2 which forms a precursor protein for capsid formation. (wikipedia.org)
  • RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) is an essential protein encoded in the genomes of all RNA-containing viruses with no DNA stage i.e. only RNA viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Life functions through the specialized chemistry of carbon and water and is largely based upon four key families of chemicals: lipids (fatty cell walls), carbohydrates (sugars, cellulose), amino acids (protein metabolism), and nucleic acids (self-replicating DNA and RNA). (wikipedia.org)
  • This problem was overcome in the 1960s by the use of reticulocytes in vertebrates, which produce large quantities of mRNA that are highly enriched in RNA encoding alpha- and beta-globin (the two major protein chains of hemoglobin). (wikipedia.org)
  • The ability to work out the genetic code emerged from the convergence of three different areas of study--(i) new methods to generate synthetic RNA molecules of defined composition to serve as artificial mRNAs, (ii) development of in vitro translation systems that could be used to translate the synthetic mRNAs into protein, and (iii) experimental and theoretical genetic work which established that the code was written in three letter "words" (codons). (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • We use large parallel temperature replica exchange molecular dynamics ensembles to sample the full conformational landscape of these hairpin molecules so that we can identify the stable structures formed by the hairpin sequence. (rsc.org)
  • Alternatively, the transcribed gene may encode for either non-coding RNA (such as microRNA ), ribosomal RNA (rRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA), or other enzymatic RNA molecules called ribozymes . (wikipedia.org)
  • With the newly formed virions, more negative sense RNA molecules are produced. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biochemical fractionation experiments showed that radioactive amino acids were rapidly incorporated into small RNA molecules that remained soluble under conditions where larger RNA-containing particles would precipitate. (wikipedia.org)
  • These molecules were termed soluble (sRNA) and were later renamed transfer RNA (tRNA). (wikipedia.org)
  • mRNA
  • This directionality is because RNA polymerase can only add nucleotides to the 3' end of the growing mRNA chain. (wikipedia.org)
  • The short-lived nature of bacterial RNAs, together with the highly complex nature of the cellular mRNA population, made the biochemical isolation of mRNA very challenging. (wikipedia.org)
  • Positive-sense viral RNA is similar to mRNA and thus can be immediately translated by the host cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • Transgenic resistance in potato plants expressing potato leaf roll virus (PLRV) replicase gene. (deepdyve.com)
  • In their seminal 2012 paper A programmable dual-RNA-guided DNA endonuclease in adaptive bacterial immunity Martin Jinek, Krzysztof Chylinski, Ines Fonfara, Michael Hauer, Doudna and Emmanuelle Charpentier were the first to propose that CRISPR/Cas9 could be used for programmable gene editing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike prokaryotic RNA polymerase that initiates the transcription of all different types of RNA, RNA polymerase in eukaryotes (including humans) comes in three variations, each encoding a different type of gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • First, an RNA polymerase along with general transcription factors binds to the promoter region of the gene to form a closed complex called the preinitiation complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • The biochemical purification and characterization of RNA polymerase from the bacterium Escherichia coli enabled the understanding of the mechanisms through which RNA polymerase initiates and terminates transcription, and how those processes are regulated to regulate gene expression (i.e. turn genes on and off). (wikipedia.org)
  • transcription
  • RNA polymerase, together with one or more general transcription factors , binds to promoter DNA . (wikipedia.org)
  • RNA polymerase, assisted by one or more general transcription factors, then selects a transcription start site in the transcription bubble, binds to an initiating NTP and an extending NTP (or a short RNA primer and an extending NTP) complementary to the transcription start site sequence, and catalyzes bond formation to yield an initial RNA product. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is in contrast to a typical DNA-dependent RNA polymerase, which catalyzes the transcription of RNA from a DNA template. (wikipedia.org)
  • RNA polymerase II (Pol II) is responsible for the transcription of all mRNAs, some snRNAs, siRNAs, and all miRNAs. (wikipedia.org)
  • These modifications and their regulation constitute the operational code for the CTD to control transcription initiation, elongation and termination and to couple transcription and RNA processing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Enzymes
  • Early in her scientific career, Doudna worked to uncover the structure and biological function of RNA enzymes or ribozymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • motifs
  • Further studies defined RNA motifs within two short DI RNA regions that enhanced active CNV replicase formation. (uky.edu)
  • These discoveries provide fundamental insight into how RNA forms complex folded tertiary structures which confer enzymatic-like function in ribozymes, whereas DNA retains structural motifs in order to facilitate function such as translation of sequence. (rsc.org)
  • RNA1
  • In RNA1 both structural elements within the 3' and 5' UTR are required to translation to occur as the 3'UTR contains the translation enhancer element and the 5'UTR contains structures that aid in recruiting translation factors but also act to increase RNA stability. (wikipedia.org)
  • thymine
  • Nucleoside composition analysis showed first that RNA contained similar nucleobases to DNA, with uracil instead of thymine, and that RNA contained a number of minor nucleobase components, e.g. small amounts of pseudouridine and dimethylguanine. (wikipedia.org)
  • mRNAs
  • Although mRNAs possess great diversity, they are not the most abundant RNA species made in the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • catalytic
  • Her Ph.D. thesis was on engineering a self-replicating catalytic RNA and was supervised by Jack W. Szostak. (wikipedia.org)
  • While in the Szostak lab, Doudna reengineered the self-splicing Group I catalytic intron into a true catalytic ribozyme that would copy RNA templates. (wikipedia.org)
  • virus
  • Hopp, H. E. 2001-07-01 00:00:00 Genetically engineered expression of replicase encoding sequences has been proposed as an efficient system to confer protection against virus diseases by eliciting protection mechanisms in the plant. (deepdyve.com)
  • We used in situ hybridization to visualize the distribution of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) viral RNA (vRNA) in infected tobacco protoplasts. (nih.gov)
  • Kumarasamy R, Symons RH (1979) Extensive purification of the cucumber mosaic virus-induced RNA replicase. (springer.com)
  • The Boolarra virus typically measures around 30 nano-meters and is approximately 21 percent RNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because the virus only has 2 initial RNAs, this is the simplest class of virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Baltimore extended this work and examined two RNA tumor viruses, Rauscher murine leukemia virus and Rous sarcoma virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • An ECHO (enteric cytopathic human orphan) virus is a type of RNA virus that belongs to the species Enterovirus B, genus Enterovirus of the Picornaviridae family. (wikipedia.org)
  • As such, purified RNA of a positive-sense virus can directly cause infection though it may be less infectious than the whole virus particle. (wikipedia.org)
  • hydrogen
  • RNA is capable of forming twice as many hydrogen bonds than DNA which results in a higher melting temperature. (rsc.org)
  • structural
  • This RNA contains structural elements within the 3' and 5' UTR that bring about cap independent translation. (wikipedia.org)