• ribosomal
  • Ppk (polyphosphate kinase) is another constituent that has been reported to be part of the complex, the same as RNA chaperone Hfq, PAP (prostatic acid phosphatase), other kinds of chaperones and ribosomal proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • The non-canonical Poly(A) polymerases (Trf4p or Trf5p) of the TRAMP complex which belong to the Cid1 family do not contain RNA recognition motif (RRM) therefore additional proteins like Air1/Air2 are required by the non-canonical polymerases for polyadenylation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The zinc knuckle proteins Air1p/Air2p (Arginine methyltransferase-interacting RING-finger protein) are mainly involved in the binding of RNAs. (wikipedia.org)
  • The addition of the cap onto mRNA confers protection to the transcript from exonucleases that degrade unprotected RNA and assist in the nuclear export transport process so that the mRNA can be translated to form proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • In trans-translation, tmRNA and its associated proteins bind to bacterial ribosomes which have stalled in the middle of protein biosynthesis, for example when reaching the end of a messenger RNA which has lost its stop codon. (wikipedia.org)
  • These products are often proteins, but in non-protein coding genes such as transfer RNA (tRNA) or small nuclear RNA (snRNA) genes, the product is a functional RNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • It contains the proteins RNA helicase B, RNase E and Polynucleotide phosphorylase. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are some alternate forms of the RNA degradosome with different proteins that have been reported. (wikipedia.org)
  • ENZYMES
  • Three enzymes, RNA triphosphatase, guanylyltransferase (or CE), and methyltransferase are involved in the addition of the methylated 5' cap to the mRNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Capping is a three-step process that utilizes the enzymes RNA triphosphatase, guanylyltransferase, and methyltransferase. (wikipedia.org)
  • The NTase domain, conserved in capping enzymes, DNA and RNA ligases, is made up 5 motifs, I, III, IIIa, IV and V. Motif I or KxDG is the active site where the covalent (lysyl)-N-GMP intermediate is formed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Similar to restriction enzymes, which cleave highly specific sequences of double-stranded DNA, a variety of endoribonucleases that recognize and cleave specific sequences of single-stranded RNA have been recently classified. (wikipedia.org)
  • The RNA degradosome was discovered in two different laboratories while they were working on the purification and characterization of E. coli, RNase E and the factors that could have an influence on the activity of the RNA-degrading enzymes, concretely, PNPase. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • The fourth zinc knuckle have a role in RNA binding while the fifth knuckle is important for protein-protein interactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • While bacterial primases (DnaG-type) are composed of a single protein unit (a monomer) and synthesize RNA primers, AEP primases are usually composed of two different primase units (a heterodimer) and synthesize two-part primers with both RNA and DNA components. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is worth noting that all intracellular RNAs are protected from RNase activity by a number of strategies including 5' end capping, 3' end polyadenylation, and folding within an RNA protein complex (ribonucleoprotein particle or RNP). (wikipedia.org)
  • A form of RNase P that is a protein and does not contain RNA has recently been discovered. (wikipedia.org)
  • cGAS is a 522 amino acid protein and a member of the nucleotidyltransferase family. (wikipedia.org)
  • helicase
  • The Ski2 like helicase Mtr4p was discovered during the screening of heat resistant mutants that gather Poly(A) RNA in the nucleus and is mainly involved in unwinding activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The RNA expression pattern of this Caenorhabditis helicase correlates with the presence of germ-line tissue in the parasitic nematode Ascaris lumbricoides var. (nih.gov)
  • RNA helicase (RhlB): a big family of enzimes, this type has 711 amino acids and it weighs 77kDa. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other alternate components during cold shock include RNA helicase CsdA. (wikipedia.org)
  • strand
  • Primase is of key importance in DNA replication because no known replicative DNA polymerases can initiate the synthesis of a DNA strand without an initial RNA or DNA primer (for temporary DNA elongation). (wikipedia.org)
  • This RNA is complementary to the template 3' → 5' DNA strand, which is itself complementary to the coding 5' → 3' DNA strand. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, the resulting 5' → 3' RNA strand is identical to the coding DNA strand with the exception that thymines (T) are replaced with uracils (U) in the RNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • A coding DNA strand reading "ATG" is indirectly transcribed through the non-coding strand as "AUG" in RNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • poly
  • The TRAMP complex trims the poly(A) tails of RNAs destined for Rrp6 and the core exosome down to 4-5 adenosines assisting in transcript recognition and exosome complex activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The difference between non-canonical and canonical Poly(A) Polymerases is that canonical polymerases help in maintaining mRNAs and its activity is regulated by a specific sequence in the mRNA while polyadenylation of non-canonical polymerases uses a different regulated sequence in the RNA and specifies RNAs for degeneration or processing. (wikipedia.org)
  • canonical polymerases can add many adenylates thus the RNA produced has longer poly(A) tails while non-canonical polymerases on the other hand can produce RNAs with shorter length of poly(A) tails as they can add only few adenylates. (wikipedia.org)
  • rRNA
  • EC 3.1.26.3: RNase III is a type of ribonuclease that cleaves rRNA (16s rRNA and 23s rRNA) from transcribed polycistronic RNA operon in prokaryotes. (wikipedia.org)
  • motif
  • Mtr4p requires ATP or dATP hydrolysis for RNA duplex unwinding mediaited by Q-motif. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cloverleaf structure becomes the 3D L-shaped structure through coaxial stacking of the helices, which is a common RNA tertiary structure motif. (wikipedia.org)
  • C-terminal residues 213-522 contain part of the nucleotidyltransferase (NTase) motif and a Mab21 domain and are highly conserved in cGAS from zebrafish to humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Saccharomyces
  • TRAMP complex (Trf4/Air2/Mtr4p Polyadenylation complex) is a multiprotein, heterotrimeric complex having distributive polyadenylation activity and identifies wide varieties of RNAs produced by polymerases.It was originally discovered in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by LaCava et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • synthesis
  • In addition to priming DNA during replication, primases may have additional functions in the DNA replication process, such as polymerization of DNA or RNA, terminal transfer, translesion synthesis (TLS), non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) and may also be involved in restarting stalled replication forks. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transfer RNA-primed oligoadenylate synthesis in maize seedlings. (wikipedia.org)
  • substrates
  • Through direct contact with various components of exosome, Mtr4p helps in proper addition of RNA substrates of TRAMP complex to nuclear exosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • methyltransferase
  • Last, RNA methyltransferase transfers a methyl group to the guanosine cap to yield 7-methylguanosine cap that is attached to the 5' end of the transcript. (wikipedia.org)
  • substrate
  • So the structure is like a molecular domain where RNA can interact as a substrate with each of the components and when this happens, it is really difficult for RNA to scape from the complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • duplex
  • It does not require any cofactors for its activity EC 3.1.26.4: RNase H is a ribonuclease that cleaves the RNA in a DNA/RNA duplex to produce ssDNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • complex
  • TRAMP complex also affects various other RNA processes either directly or indirectly. (wikipedia.org)
  • The m7G cap is then bound by cap binding complex heterodimer (CBC20/CBC80), which aids in mRNA export to cytoplasm and also protect the RNA from decapping. (wikipedia.org)
  • BASES
  • The presence of pseudouridine in the mixed 10S RNA hinted that tmRNA has modified bases found also in tRNA. (wikipedia.org)