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  • ribosomal
  • Ppk (polyphosphate kinase) is another constituent that has been reported to be part of the complex, the same as RNA chaperone Hfq, PAP (prostatic acid phosphatase), other kinds of chaperones and ribosomal proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • The non-canonical Poly(A) polymerases (Trf4p or Trf5p) of the TRAMP complex which belong to the Cid1 family do not contain RNA recognition motif (RRM) therefore additional proteins like Air1/Air2 are required by the non-canonical polymerases for polyadenylation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The zinc knuckle proteins Air1p/Air2p (Arginine methyltransferase-interacting RING-finger protein) are mainly involved in the binding of RNAs. (wikipedia.org)
  • The addition of the cap onto mRNA confers protection to the transcript from exonucleases that degrade unprotected RNA and assist in the nuclear export transport process so that the mRNA can be translated to form proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • In trans-translation, tmRNA and its associated proteins bind to bacterial ribosomes which have stalled in the middle of protein biosynthesis, for example when reaching the end of a messenger RNA which has lost its stop codon. (wikipedia.org)
  • These products are often proteins, but in non-protein coding genes such as transfer RNA (tRNA) or small nuclear RNA (snRNA) genes, the product is a functional RNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • It contains the proteins RNA helicase B, RNase E and Polynucleotide phosphorylase. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are some alternate forms of the RNA degradosome with different proteins that have been reported. (wikipedia.org)
  • synthesis
  • Some nucleotidyltransferases bear specific names (for example, adenylyltransferases), trivial names indicating the linkage hydrolyzed in the synthesis (pyrophosphorylases, phosphorylases), or names indicating the material that is synthesized (for example, RNA or DNA polymerase). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Primase catalyzes the synthesis of a short RNA (or DNA in some organisms ) segment called a primer complementary to a ssDNA template. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to priming DNA during replication, primases may have additional functions in the DNA replication process, such as polymerization of DNA or RNA, terminal transfer, translesion synthesis (TLS), non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) and may also be involved in restarting stalled replication forks. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transfer RNA-primed oligoadenylate synthesis in maize seedlings. (wikipedia.org)
  • poly
  • The TRAMP complex trims the poly(A) tails of RNAs destined for Rrp6 and the core exosome down to 4-5 adenosines assisting in transcript recognition and exosome complex activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Ski2 like helicase Mtr4p was discovered during the screening of heat resistant mutants that gather Poly(A) RNA in the nucleus and is mainly involved in unwinding activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The difference between non-canonical and canonical Poly(A) Polymerases is that canonical polymerases help in maintaining mRNAs and its activity is regulated by a specific sequence in the mRNA while polyadenylation of non-canonical polymerases uses a different regulated sequence in the RNA and specifies RNAs for degeneration or processing. (wikipedia.org)
  • canonical polymerases can add many adenylates thus the RNA produced has longer poly(A) tails while non-canonical polymerases on the other hand can produce RNAs with shorter length of poly(A) tails as they can add only few adenylates. (wikipedia.org)
  • motif
  • Mtr4p requires ATP or dATP hydrolysis for RNA duplex unwinding mediaited by Q-motif. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cloverleaf structure becomes the 3D L-shaped structure through coaxial stacking of the helices, which is a common RNA tertiary structure motif. (wikipedia.org)
  • C-terminal residues 213-522 contain part of the nucleotidyltransferase (NTase) motif and a Mab21 domain and are highly conserved in cGAS from zebrafish to humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Saccharomyces
  • TRAMP complex (Trf4/Air2/Mtr4p Polyadenylation complex) is a multiprotein, heterotrimeric complex having distributive polyadenylation activity and identifies wide varieties of RNAs produced by polymerases.It was originally discovered in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by LaCava et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzymology
  • In enzymology, a RNA uridylyltransferase (EC 2.7.7.52) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction UTP + RNAn ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } diphosphate + RNAn+1 Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are UTP and RNAn, whereas its two products are diphosphate and RNAn+1. (wikipedia.org)
  • polyadenylation
  • It is worth noting that all intracellular RNAs are protected from RNase activity by a number of strategies including 5' end capping, 3' end polyadenylation, and folding within an RNA protein complex (ribonucleoprotein particle or RNP). (wikipedia.org)
  • substrates
  • Through direct contact with various components of exosome, Mtr4p helps in proper addition of RNA substrates of TRAMP complex to nuclear exosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • methyltransferase
  • Last, RNA methyltransferase transfers a methyl group to the guanosine cap to yield 7-methylguanosine cap that is attached to the 5' end of the transcript. (wikipedia.org)
  • substrate
  • So the structure is like a molecular domain where RNA can interact as a substrate with each of the components and when this happens, it is really difficult for RNA to scape from the complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • duplex
  • It does not require any cofactors for its activity EC 3.1.26.4: RNase H is a ribonuclease that cleaves the RNA in a DNA/RNA duplex to produce ssDNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • complex
  • TRAMP complex also affects various other RNA processes either directly or indirectly. (wikipedia.org)
  • The m7G cap is then bound by cap binding complex heterodimer (CBC20/CBC80), which aids in mRNA export to cytoplasm and also protect the RNA from decapping. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacterial
  • While bacterial primases (DnaG-type) are composed of a single protein unit (a monomer) and synthesize RNA primers, AEP primases are usually composed of two different primase units (a heterodimer) and synthesize two-part primers with both RNA and DNA components. (wikipedia.org)
  • mRNA
  • Active site of the mRNA-capping enzyme guanylyltransferase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: similarity to the nucleotidyl attachment motif of DNA and RNA ligases. (wikipedia.org)
  • tRNA does this by carrying an amino acid to the protein synthetic machinery of a cell (ribosome) as directed by a three-nucleotide sequence (codon) in a messenger RNA (mRNA). (wikipedia.org)
  • The difference between non-canonical and canonical Poly(A) Polymerases is that canonical polymerases help in maintaining mRNAs and its activity is regulated by a specific sequence in the mRNA while polyadenylation of non-canonical polymerases uses a different regulated sequence in the RNA and specifies RNAs for degeneration or processing. (wikipedia.org)
  • It also digests double strands RNA (dsRNA)-Dicer family of RNAse, cutting pre-miRNA (60-70bp long) at a specific site and transforming it in miRNA (22-30bp), that is actively involved in the regulation of transcription and mRNA life-time. (wikipedia.org)
  • Three enzymes, RNA triphosphatase, guanylyltransferase (or CE), and methyltransferase are involved in the addition of the methylated 5' cap to the mRNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eukaryotic RNA must undergo a series of modifications in order to be exported from the nucleus and successfully translated into function proteins, many of which are dependent on mRNA capping, the first mRNA modification to take place. (wikipedia.org)
  • After successful capping, an additional phosphorylation event initiates the recruitment of machinery necessary for RNA splicing, a process by which introns are removed to produce a mature mRNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • The addition of the cap onto mRNA confers protection to the transcript from exonucleases that degrade unprotected RNA and assist in the nuclear export transport process so that the mRNA can be translated to form proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • synthesis
  • During virus replication, PB1 initiates RNA synthesis and copy vRNA into complementary RNA (cRNA) which in turn serves as a template for the production of more vRNAs. (uniprot.org)
  • This enzyme is part of the synthesis of DNA and RNA, and when methotrexate binds the enzyme, it renders it inactive, so it cannot synthesize DNA and RNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Even in resting cells, RNA is degraded in a steady state, and the nucleotide products of this process are later reused for fresh rounds of nucleic acid synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Primase catalyzes the synthesis of a short RNA (or DNA in some organisms ) segment called a primer complementary to a ssDNA template. (wikipedia.org)
  • Primase is of key importance in DNA replication because no known replicative DNA polymerases can initiate the synthesis of a DNA strand without an initial RNA or DNA primer (for temporary DNA elongation). (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to priming DNA during replication, primases may have additional functions in the DNA replication process, such as polymerization of DNA or RNA, terminal transfer, translesion synthesis (TLS), non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) and may also be involved in restarting stalled replication forks. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protein
  • The multi-protein complex also serves as a machine for processing structured RNA precursors in the course of their maturation. (wikipedia.org)
  • cGAS is a 522 amino acid protein and a member of the nucleotidyltransferase family. (wikipedia.org)
  • In trans-translation, tmRNA and its associated proteins bind to bacterial ribosomes which have stalled in the middle of protein biosynthesis, for example when reaching the end of a messenger RNA which has lost its stop codon. (wikipedia.org)
  • The zinc knuckle proteins Air1p/Air2p (Arginine methyltransferase-interacting RING-finger protein) are mainly involved in the binding of RNAs. (wikipedia.org)
  • The fourth zinc knuckle have a role in RNA binding while the fifth knuckle is important for protein-protein interactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is worth noting that all intracellular RNAs are protected from RNase activity by a number of strategies including 5' end capping, 3' end polyadenylation, and folding within an RNA protein complex (ribonucleoprotein particle or RNP). (wikipedia.org)
  • A form of RNase P that is a protein and does not contain RNA has recently been discovered. (wikipedia.org)
  • While bacterial primases (DnaG-type) are composed of a single protein unit (a monomer) and synthesize RNA primers, AEP primases are usually composed of two different primase units (a heterodimer) and synthesize two-part primers with both RNA and DNA components. (wikipedia.org)
  • ribosomal
  • Ppk (polyphosphate kinase) is another constituent that has been reported to be part of the complex, the same as RNA chaperone Hfq, PAP (prostatic acid phosphatase), other kinds of chaperones and ribosomal proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • motif
  • The cloverleaf structure becomes the 3D L-shaped structure through coaxial stacking of the helices, which is a common RNA tertiary structure motif. (wikipedia.org)
  • The non-canonical Poly(A) polymerases (Trf4p or Trf5p) of the TRAMP complex which belong to the Cid1 family do not contain RNA recognition motif (RRM) therefore additional proteins like Air1/Air2 are required by the non-canonical polymerases for polyadenylation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mtr4p requires ATP or dATP hydrolysis for RNA duplex unwinding mediaited by Q-motif. (wikipedia.org)
  • organism
  • Finally, the use of antisense RNA is limited to the genes for which an adequate expression of the inhibitory RNA can be obtained in the organism under study. (pnas.org)
  • proteins
  • GENTAUR suppliers human normal cells, cell lines, RNA extracts and lots of antibodies and ELISA kits to Human proteins as well as MicroRNA Tools Human pre-microRNA Expression Construct Lenti-miR-1204. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • There are some alternate forms of the RNA degradosome with different proteins that have been reported. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzymes
  • The RNA degradosome was discovered in two different laboratories while they were working on the purification and characterization of E. coli, RNase E and the factors that could have an influence on the activity of the RNA-degrading enzymes, concretely, PNPase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many eukaryotic guanylyl transferases are capping enzymes that catalyze the formation of the 5' cap in the co-transcriptional modification of messenger RNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Similar to restriction enzymes, which cleave highly specific sequences of double-stranded DNA, a variety of endoribonucleases that recognize and cleave specific sequences of single-stranded RNA have been recently classified. (wikipedia.org)
  • Capping is a three-step process that utilizes the enzymes RNA triphosphatase, guanylyltransferase, and methyltransferase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecular
  • So the structure is like a molecular domain where RNA can interact as a substrate with each of the components and when this happens, it is really difficult for RNA to scape from the complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • nucleotide
  • The transfer RNA (tRNA) for histidine is unique among eukaryotic tRNAs in requiring the addition of a guanine nucleotide before being aminoacylated by the histidine tRNA synthetase. (wikipedia.org)
  • duplex
  • It does not require any cofactors for its activity EC 3.1.26.4: RNase H is a ribonuclease that cleaves the RNA in a DNA/RNA duplex to produce ssDNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacterial
  • In other bacterial species, a permuted ssrA gene produces a two-piece tmRNA in which two separate RNA chains are joined by base-pairing. (wikipedia.org)
  • rRNA
  • EC 3.1.26.3: RNase III is a type of ribonuclease that cleaves rRNA (16s rRNA and 23s rRNA) from transcribed polycistronic RNA operon in prokaryotes. (wikipedia.org)
  • tails
  • The TRAMP complex trims the poly(A) tails of RNAs destined for Rrp6 and the core exosome down to 4-5 adenosines assisting in transcript recognition and exosome complex activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • canonical polymerases can add many adenylates thus the RNA produced has longer poly(A) tails while non-canonical polymerases on the other hand can produce RNAs with shorter length of poly(A) tails as they can add only few adenylates. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutants
  • None of the known RNA targets, however, explains the fact that trf mutants have specific cell cycle defects consistent with a role in maintaining genome stability. (genetics.org)
  • gene expression
  • Another experimental approach using antisense RNA to inhibit gene expression led to the identification of some 150 essential genes in Staphylococcus aureus ( 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • amino
  • The RNA triphosphatase (Cet1) is a separate 549 amino acid polypeptide (80-kD), encoded by the CET1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • transfers
  • Last, RNA methyltransferase transfers a methyl group to the guanosine cap to yield 7-methylguanosine cap that is attached to the 5' end of the transcript. (wikipedia.org)