• Genes
  • Although recently an increasing number of noncoding RNA (ncRNA) (e.g., miR-21, miR-155, miR-122, and others) have been shown to act as oncogenes (oncomirs) or tumor-suppressor genes [ 4 , 5 ], the sub-cellular localization of noncoding RNAs is not well known, and little effort have been directed at analyzing the sub-cellular localization regulation of microRNAs and other important noncoding RNAs [ 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The bioinformatic approach has allowed for the prediction of 295 putative sRNAs genes in the genome of H. mediterranei , 88 of which have been verified by means of RNA-Sequencing (RNA-Seq). (mdpi.com)
  • sequence
  • The RNA sequence is divided into three domains: a 5' portion homologous to the Alu Lm, a central adenosine-rich region, and the terminal 43-nt nonrepetitive domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • BC200 RNA
  • The gene encoding BC200 RNA arose from a monomeric Alu element. (springer.com)
  • The period following the divergence of New World monkeys and Old World monkeys from their common ancestor is characterized by a significantly higher substitution rate in the examined 5′ flanking region than in the BC200 RNA coding region itself. (springer.com)
  • highly conserved
  • This is a small RNA, roughly 53-61 nucleotides in length, that is processed from a much longer ncRNA called MALAT1 by an enzyme called RNase P. This RNA is expressed in many different human tissues, is highly conserved by evolution and shares a remarkable similarity to tRNA which is also produced by RNase P, yet this RNA is not aminoacylated in HeLa cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • MALAT 1 (metastasis associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1) also known as NEAT2 (noncoding nuclear-enriched abundant transcript 2) is a large, infrequently spliced non-coding RNA, which is highly conserved amongst mammals and highly expressed in the nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulatory
  • The family of non-coding regulatory RNAs (ncRNAs) has been expanding its members in view of the fact that large-scale studies of the human transcriptome revealed that a significant fraction of the genome is transcribed into these ncRNAs. (mdpi.com)
  • Small noncoding RNAs have important regulatory functions in different cell pathways. (hindawi.com)
  • Nevertheless, it is becoming increasingly clear that non-polyadenylated RNAs are much more common and play significantly greater regulatory roles in vivo than previously appreciated. (upenn.edu)
  • miRNAs
  • With the advent of new and improved high-throughput sequencing technologies in the last few years, a growing number of novel classes of small RNA, other than miRNAs or siRNA, has emerged, which appear as new actors in gene expression regulation. (mdpi.com)
  • gene expression
  • Among these ncRNAs, the small ncRNAs (sRNAs) of ~20-30 nt in length have been recognized as key players in the regulation of gene expression at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels, which is far from being completely characterized. (mdpi.com)
  • In addition, we are developing approaches to identify additional triple helices that form across the transcriptome, thereby revealing new paradigms for how RNA structures regulate gene expression. (upenn.edu)
  • His laboratory has developed approaches to elucidate the spatial and temporal aspects of gene expression and in identifying and characterizing the function of nuclear retained long non-coding RNAs. (wikipedia.org)
  • novel
  • tRNA-derived small RNAs represent one of these novel members that are, surprisingly, among the most conserved class of small RNAs throughout evolution. (mdpi.com)
  • Our goal is to characterize the mechanisms by which noncoding RNAs are generated, regulated, and function, thereby revealing novel fundamental insights into RNA biology and developing new methods to treat diseases. (upenn.edu)
  • We aim to identify and characterize additional RNAs whose 3' ends are generated via unexpected mechanisms, thereby revealing novel paradigms for how RNAs are processed and, most importantly, new classes of noncoding RNAs with important biological functions. (upenn.edu)
  • genome
  • Two of these circular RNAs clearly function as microRNA sponges, but it is largely unknown why all the other circular RNAs are produced or how the splicing machinery selects certain regions of the genome (and not others) to circularize. (upenn.edu)
  • The viral genome is around 2500 nm in length so we can therefore conclude that it must be tightly packaged within the capsid along with substances such as sodium ions in order to cancel out the negative charges on the RNA caused by the phosphate groups. (wikipedia.org)
  • Picornaviruses are classed under Baltimore's viral classification system as group IV viruses as they contain a single stranded, positive sense RNA genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Their repetitive arrangement within the genome provides excessive amounts of template DNA for PCR, even in the smallest organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • The genome is composed of a linear double-stranded RNA molecule of 4.6-6.7 kilobases. (wikipedia.org)
  • siRNA
  • Recent research indicate that siRNA-induced transcriptional gene silencing through DNA methylation occur in various human cell types [ 14 , 15 ], and small nuclear RNAs (e.g., 7SK and U6) have been downregulated by ectopic siRNA activity [ 16 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • genomes
  • Genomes are linear and segmented, and labeled as large (L) 6.4kb, Medium (M) 4 kb and Small (S) 2.9 kb in length. (wikipedia.org)
  • abundant
  • Their use as disease biomarkers has been limited by technical challenges in their isolation caused by abundant RNA- and DNA-degrading enzymes in biofluids. (pnas.org)
  • For example, an abundant class of circular RNAs has recently been identified in human and mouse cells. (upenn.edu)
  • pathways
  • They could represent the most primitive small RNA pathways from which the well-known canonical RNA silencing pathways reported in higher eukaryotes evolved. (mdpi.com)
  • human
  • This is because many of these poorly characterized RNAs exhibit cell type-specific expression or are associated with human diseases, including cancer and neurological disorders. (upenn.edu)
  • clostridium
  • Moreover, SRP RNA of another spore-forming bacteria, clostridium perfringens, contains three domains, and can restore the growth and sporulation of B.subtilis conditional mutant, suggesting that both domains I and II are required for sporulation. (nii.ac.jp)