• parasites
  • Nevertheless, helminth parasites have developed complex strategies to modulate the immune responses of their hosts through versatile immunoregulatory mechanisms. (ijbs.com)
  • Amongst these parasites, soil-transmitted helminths (STHs), including Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus (hookworms), Ascaris sp. (biomedcentral.com)
  • IRI-Schering Colloquium - Amy Buck: "RNA and vesicle secretion by helminth parasites: at the host interface" Apr 05, 2018 04:00 PM (Europe/Vienna) - IRI Life Sciences, Philippstr. (hu-berlin.de)
  • They also fight helminth (worm) colonization and may be slightly elevated in the presence of certain parasites. (wikipedia.org)
  • Organisms thought to be found in the human microbiome, however, may generally be categorized as bacteria (the majority), members of domain Archaea, yeasts, and single-celled eukaryotes as well as various helminth parasites and viruses, the latter including viruses that infect the cellular microbiome organisms (e.g., bacteriophages, the viruses of bacteria). (wikipedia.org)
  • infection
  • Participants who have received treatment for helminth infection in the past 6 months (by self report or chart review). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • When the dsRNA is exogenous (coming from infection by a virus with an RNA genome or laboratory manipulations), the RNA is imported directly into the cytoplasm and cleaved to short fragments by Dicer. (wikipedia.org)
  • To determine rates of exposure and infection, we examined serum samples from wild snakes at a focus of EEEV in Alabama for viral RNA using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. (ajtmh.org)
  • Here, we address the impact of a helminth infection on tumor development using a well-established chemical colorectal cancer mouse model. (ijbs.com)
  • We find that after helminth infection, or immunization with helminth antigens, reactive lymphoid organs of 4get IL-4/GFP reporter mice contain populations of IL-4/GFP-expressing CD4 + T cells that display the TFH markers CXCR5, PD-1, and ICOS. (rupress.org)
  • The immunological answer very efficiently evoked by helminth infection is aimed at hijacking and suppressing the immune system in order to suit the requirements of the specific helminth. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • This permits helminths to cause chronic infection, often persisting over years and allowing some infecting worms to grow to several centimetres of length within their host. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Some clinical trials have been able to confirm this detrimental effect of helminths on HIV infection, while other trials failed to do so. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • A recent Cochrane review on clinical trials with HIV and helminth co-infection found an overall slight reduction of HIV viral load if helminth infection was treated. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • According to mathematical models, even a relatively modest reduction of HIV RNA by 0.5 log could delay the need to start combined antiretroviral therapy by about 3.5 years and potentially prolong the symptom-free phase of HIV-infection by nearly 1 year. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Objective: To assess the impact of presumptive anthelminthic treatment on HIV progression in patients infected with HIV in a rural setting with presumed high prevalence of helminth infection. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • After maturation, eosinophils circulate in blood and migrate to inflammatory sites in tissues, or to sites of helminth infection in response to chemokines like CCL11 (eotaxin-1), CCL24 (eotaxin-2), CCL5 (RANTES), 5-hydroxyicosatetraenoic acid and 5-oxo-eicosatetraenoic acid, and certain leukotrienes like leukotriene B4 (LTB4) and MCP1/4. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genes
  • RNAs are the direct products of genes, and these small RNAs can bind to other specific messenger RNA (mRNA) molecules and either increase or decrease their activity, for example by preventing an mRNA from being translated into a protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • The initiating dsRNA can also be endogenous (originating in the cell), as in pre-microRNAs expressed from RNA-coding genes in the genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pfam, a protein family database Rfam, an RNA family database TreeFam, a database of phylogenetic trees for animal genes Vega, a vertebrate genome annotation resource WormBase, a database on the biology and sequence of the model organism C. elegans and other related Nematodes. (wikipedia.org)
  • RNAi
  • The RNAi pathway is found in many eukaryotes, including animals, and is initiated by the enzyme Dicer, which cleaves long double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) molecules into short double-stranded fragments of ~20 nucleotide siRNAs. (wikipedia.org)
  • RNAi is RNA-dependent gene silencing process that is controlled by the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) and is initiated by short double-stranded RNA molecules in a cell's cytoplasm, where they interact with the catalytic RISC component argonaute. (wikipedia.org)
  • Exogenous dsRNA initiates RNAi by activating the ribonuclease protein Dicer, which binds and cleaves double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) in plants, or short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) in humans, to produce double-stranded fragments of 20-25 base pairs with a 2-nucleotide overhang at the 3' end. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dicer
  • Both pathways require the RNA-processing enzyme Dicer to produce the active small-RNA component that represses gene expression. (umassmed.edu)
  • R2D2 carries tandem double-stranded RNA-binding domains to recognize the thermodynamically stable terminus of siRNA duplexes, whereas Dicer-2 the other less stable extremity. (wikipedia.org)
  • genome
  • Today, RNA-seq data is available for a wide range of organisms, tissues and environmental conditions, and can be utilized for genome annotation pipelines. (biomedcentral.com)
  • hosts
  • An example of an exception is helminths of marine mammals, which have the greatest diversity in northern temperate seas, possibly because of small population densities of hosts in tropical seas that prevented the evolution of a rich helminth fauna, or because they originated in temperate seas and had more time for speciations there. (wikipedia.org)
  • elegans
  • elegans and found to contain sequences complementary to a repeated sequence element in the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of lin-14 mRNA, suggesting that lin-4 regulates lin-14 translation via an antisense RNA-RNA interaction. (labome.ru)
  • protein
  • Consistent with a relationship between Th2 and TFH cells, IL-4 protein production, reported by expression of huCD2 in IL-4 dual reporter (4get/KN2) mice, was a robust marker of TFH cells in LNs responding to helminth antigens. (rupress.org)
  • There is evidence to suggest that eosinophil granule protein expression is regulated by the non-coding RNA EGOT. (wikipedia.org)
  • inflammatory
  • Concomitantly, epidemiological data provide strong evidence about the incidence of inflammatory bowel disease and colorectal cancer in the past three decades in developed countries [ 6 ], suggesting an inverse association between helminth infections and inflammatory bowel disease and colorectal cancer. (ijbs.com)
  • Thus
  • Thus, immunomodulatory activities induced by helminth infections may have a role in the progression of CAC. (ijbs.com)
  • resistance
  • Importantly, Th2 responses are associated with the development of strong antibody responses, particularly IgG1 and IgE, which in certain helminth infections are implicated in resistance to reinfection ( 10 - 12 ). (rupress.org)
  • sequence
  • The most well-studied outcome is post-transcriptional gene silencing, which occurs when the guide strand pairs with a complementary sequence in a messenger RNA molecule and induces cleavage by Argonaute 2 (Ago2), the catalytic component of the RISC. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, we present an extension of the gene prediction program GeMoMa that utilizes amino acid sequence conservation, intron position conservation and optionally RNA-seq data for homology-based gene prediction. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here, we present an extension of GeMoMa [ 7 ] that utilizes RNA-seq data in addition to amino acid sequence and intron position conservation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • species
  • Two species of vipers, the copperhead ( Agkistrodon contortrix ) and the cottonmouth ( Agkistrodon piscivorus ), were found to be positive for EEEV RNA using this assay. (ajtmh.org)
  • evidence
  • In this section, we describe recent extensions of GeMoMa to make use of evidence from RNA-seq data, the RNA-seq pipelines used and the data considered in the benchmark and application studies. (biomedcentral.com)
  • data
  • We show on published benchmark data for plants, animals and fungi that GeMoMa performs better than the gene prediction programs BRAKER1, MAKER2, and CodingQuarry, and purely RNA-seq-based pipelines for transcript identification. (biomedcentral.com)
  • short
  • To develop transgenesis as a functional approach for these pathogens, we previously demonstrated that pseudotyped murine leukemia virus (MLV) can transduce schistosomes leading to chromosomal integration of reporter transgenes and short hairpin RNA cassettes. (paperity.org)
  • complex
  • The passenger strand is degraded and the guide strand is incorporated into the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). (wikipedia.org)