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  • parasites
  • Nevertheless, helminth parasites have developed complex strategies to modulate the immune responses of their hosts through versatile immunoregulatory mechanisms. (ijbs.com)
  • Amongst these parasites, soil-transmitted helminths (STHs), including Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus (hookworms), Ascaris sp. (biomedcentral.com)
  • They also fight helminth (worm) colonization and may be slightly elevated in the presence of certain parasites. (wikipedia.org)
  • Organisms thought to be found in the human microbiome, however, may generally be categorized as bacteria (the majority), members of domain Archaea, yeasts, and single-celled eukaryotes as well as various helminth parasites and viruses, the latter including viruses that infect the cellular microbiome organisms (e.g., bacteriophages, the viruses of bacteria). (wikipedia.org)
  • nematodes
  • Our results confirm the conserved nature of RNA secretion by diverse nematodes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Pfam, a protein family database Rfam, an RNA family database TreeFam, a database of phylogenetic trees for animal genes Vega, a vertebrate genome annotation resource WormBase, a database on the biology and sequence of the model organism C. elegans and other related Nematodes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genes
  • RNAs are the direct products of genes, and these small RNAs can bind to other specific messenger RNA (mRNA) molecules and either increase or decrease their activity, for example by preventing an mRNA from being translated into a protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • The initiating dsRNA can also be endogenous (originating in the cell), as in pre-microRNAs expressed from RNA-coding genes in the genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • RNAi
  • The RNAi pathway is found in many eukaryotes, including animals, and is initiated by the enzyme Dicer, which cleaves long double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) molecules into short double-stranded fragments of ~20 nucleotide siRNAs. (wikipedia.org)
  • RNAi is RNA-dependent gene silencing process that is controlled by the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) and is initiated by short double-stranded RNA molecules in a cell's cytoplasm, where they interact with the catalytic RISC component argonaute. (wikipedia.org)
  • Exogenous dsRNA initiates RNAi by activating the ribonuclease protein Dicer, which binds and cleaves double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) in plants, or short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) in humans, to produce double-stranded fragments of 20-25 base pairs with a 2-nucleotide overhang at the 3' end. (wikipedia.org)
  • antigens
  • We find that after helminth infection, or immunization with helminth antigens, reactive lymphoid organs of 4get IL-4/GFP reporter mice contain populations of IL-4/GFP-expressing CD4 + T cells that display the TFH markers CXCR5, PD-1, and ICOS. (rupress.org)
  • Consistent with a relationship between Th2 and TFH cells, IL-4 protein production, reported by expression of huCD2 in IL-4 dual reporter (4get/KN2) mice, was a robust marker of TFH cells in LNs responding to helminth antigens. (rupress.org)
  • helminths and antigens derived from them inherently induce Th2-polarized responses ( 13 ). (rupress.org)
  • induces
  • The most well-studied outcome is post-transcriptional gene silencing, which occurs when the guide strand pairs with a complementary sequence in a messenger RNA molecule and induces cleavage by Argonaute 2 (Ago2), the catalytic component of the RISC. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tissues
  • Today, RNA-seq data is available for a wide range of organisms, tissues and environmental conditions, and can be utilized for genome annotation pipelines. (biomedcentral.com)
  • After maturation, eosinophils circulate in blood and migrate to inflammatory sites in tissues, or to sites of helminth infection in response to chemokines like CCL11 (eotaxin-1), CCL24 (eotaxin-2), CCL5 (RANTES), 5-hydroxyicosatetraenoic acid and 5-oxo-eicosatetraenoic acid, and certain leukotrienes like leukotriene B4 (LTB4) and MCP1/4. (wikipedia.org)
  • RISC
  • The passenger strand is degraded and the guide strand is incorporated into the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). (wikipedia.org)
  • Humans
  • Small RNA libraries were prepared from total RNA extracted from the nodule fluid of cattle infected with Onchocerca ochengi as well as serum and plasma from humans infected with Onchocerca volvulus in Cameroon and Ghana. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Dicer
  • Both pathways require the RNA-processing enzyme Dicer to produce the active small-RNA component that represses gene expression. (umassmed.edu)
  • When the dsRNA is exogenous (coming from infection by a virus with an RNA genome or laboratory manipulations), the RNA is imported directly into the cytoplasm and cleaved to short fragments by Dicer. (wikipedia.org)
  • R2D2 carries tandem double-stranded RNA-binding domains to recognize the thermodynamically stable terminus of siRNA duplexes, whereas Dicer-2 the other less stable extremity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transcription
  • To determine rates of exposure and infection, we examined serum samples from wild snakes at a focus of EEEV in Alabama for viral RNA using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. (ajtmh.org)
  • hosts
  • An example of an exception is helminths of marine mammals, which have the greatest diversity in northern temperate seas, possibly because of small population densities of hosts in tropical seas that prevented the evolution of a rich helminth fauna, or because they originated in temperate seas and had more time for speciations there. (wikipedia.org)
  • high-throughput
  • Here we describe a high-throughput method for reliable identification of polyadenylated RNA termini, and we apply this method, called poly(A)-position profiling by sequencing (3P-Seq), to determine C. elegans 3'UTRs. (nih.gov)
  • protein
  • There is evidence to suggest that eosinophil granule protein expression is regulated by the non-coding RNA EGOT. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immune
  • She discusses the immune system, autoimmunity and helminth infection, coevolution of helminths and immunity, the localized impact, immune modulation, response, helminth influence on immunity, types of chronic tissue helminth infection, pathogen co-existence and immunity, and helminths and autoimmunity in mice. (educator.com)
  • species
  • Two species of vipers, the copperhead ( Agkistrodon contortrix ) and the cottonmouth ( Agkistrodon piscivorus ), were found to be positive for EEEV RNA using this assay. (ajtmh.org)
  • Additional species-specific small RNAs from O. volvulus may be present in serum based on the novel miRNA sequences identified in the nodule fluid. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Caenorhabditis
  • The 21-nucleotide small temporal RNA (stRNA) let-7 regulates developmental timing in Caenorhabditis elegans and probably in other bilateral animals. (umassmed.edu)
  • small
  • Small non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs) have emerged as important regulators of many processes in animals, from development to immunity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • data
  • Here, we present an extension of the gene prediction program GeMoMa that utilizes amino acid sequence conservation, intron position conservation and optionally RNA-seq data for homology-based gene prediction. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We show on published benchmark data for plants, animals and fungi that GeMoMa performs better than the gene prediction programs BRAKER1, MAKER2, and CodingQuarry, and purely RNA-seq-based pipelines for transcript identification. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here, we present an extension of GeMoMa [ 7 ] that utilizes RNA-seq data in addition to amino acid sequence and intron position conservation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this section, we describe recent extensions of GeMoMa to make use of evidence from RNA-seq data, the RNA-seq pipelines used and the data considered in the benchmark and application studies. (biomedcentral.com)
  • impact
  • Here, we address the impact of a helminth infection on tumor development using a well-established chemical colorectal cancer mouse model. (ijbs.com)
  • stable
  • microRNAs (miRNAs), a class of short, non-coding RNA can be found in a highly stable, cell-free form in mammalian body fluids. (biomedcentral.com)
  • short
  • To develop transgenesis as a functional approach for these pathogens, we previously demonstrated that pseudotyped murine leukemia virus (MLV) can transduce schistosomes leading to chromosomal integration of reporter transgenes and short hairpin RNA cassettes. (paperity.org)