• Subunit
  • The left panel shows sectioned view of the density for the E1E2 complex with 60 docked copies of the atomic coordinates of the E1 α2β2 tetramer, the E2 catalytic domain, and the E2 peripheral subunit-binding domain. (intechopen.com)
  • The E1-alpha subunit contains the E1 active site and plays a key role in the function of the PDH complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cofactors
  • Cofactors can be subclassified as either inorganic ions or complex organic molecules called coenzymes, the latter of which is mostly derived from vitamins and other organic essential nutrients in small amounts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutations
  • Mutations in the following genes cause maple syrup urine disease: BCKDHA (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) 608348) BCKDHB (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) 248611) DBT (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) 248610) DLD (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) 238331) These four genes produce proteins that work together as the branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • PDK1
  • In humans, there have been four isozymes of Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase that have been shown to phosphorylate these three sites: PDK1, PDK2, PDK3, and PDK4. (wikipedia.org)
  • As PDK1 regulates the PDH complex, it has been proven to be an important regulator in certain cells, including the beta cells within the islets of the pancreas. (wikipedia.org)
  • ketone
  • The thiazolium ring of TPP is in a zwitterionic form, and the anionic C2 carbon performs a nucleophilic attack on the C2 (ketone) carbonyl of pyruvate. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutation
  • Mutation in any of these genes reduces or eliminates the function of the enzyme complex, preventing the normal breakdown of isoleucine, leucine, and valine. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecular
  • These complexes are very large, even bigger than ribosomes, with its molecular mass to be in between 4 million to 10 million daltons. (wikibooks.org)
  • serine
  • In this research, we have constructed E. coli strains to produce PHB by engineering the Serine-Deamination (SD) pathway, the Entner-Doudoroff (ED) pathway, and the pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) complex. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Significant levels of PHB biosynthesis from different kinds of carbon sources can be achieved by engineering the Serine-Deamination pathway, Entner-Doudoroff pathway and pyruvate dehydrogenase complex in E. coli JM109 harboring the PHB biosynthesis genes from Ralstonia eutropha . (biomedcentral.com)
  • pathway
  • In addition, activating the ED pathway together with overexpressing the PDH complex further increased the PHB production to 5.54 g/L with content of 81.1% CDW. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The intracellular acetyl-CoA concentration and the [NADPH]/[NADP + ] ratio were enhanced after the modification of SD pathway, ED pathway and the PDH complex. (biomedcentral.com)