• citrate
  • Three specific pyruvate cycles are generally considered, each named for the principal molecule exported from the mitochondrion: malate, citrate, and iso-citrate.Other variants may exist, such as dissipative or "futile" pyruvate cycles. (wikipedia.org)
  • oxidation
  • METHODS: Phenylacetic acid (5 mmol/l) was used to inhibit pyruvate carboxylase in isolated rat islets, which were then assessed for insulin secretion, fuel oxidation, ATP:ADP ratio, respiration, mitochondrial membrane potential, exocytosis and ATP-sensitive K(+) channel (K(ATP)-channel) conductance. (lu.se)
  • glutamate
  • Alanine aminotransferase will cleave off the amino group from alanine and binds it to 2-oxoglutarate which generates pyruvate from alanine and glutamate from 2-oxoglutarate. (wikipedia.org)
  • reaction
  • The reaction proceeds via the removal of a proton from pyruvate, by an as yet unidentified active site residue, to generate an enolate intermediate. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • Pyruvate carboxylase also plays a role in the formation of the protective sheath that surrounds certain nerve cells (myelin) and the production of brain chemicals called neurotransmitters. (wikipedia.org)