• inhibition
  • The increase in inhibitory tone onto pyramidal cells, and the increased pyramidal cell excitability in NCAM-null mice will alter the delicate coordination of excitation and inhibition (E/I coordination) in the ACC, and may be a factor contributing to circuit dysfunction in diseases such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, in which NCAM has been implicated. (frontiersin.org)
  • cell's axon
  • The pyramidal cell's axon is often even longer and extensively branched, reaching many centimeters in total length. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the voltage changes by a large enough amount, an all-or-none electrochemical pulse called an action potential is generated and this change in cross-membrane potential travels rapidly along the cell's axon, and activates synaptic connections with other cells when it arrives. (wikipedia.org)
  • neuronal
  • In this study, we investigate the potency of Ptf1a to cell autonomously confer a specific neuronal identity outside of its endogenous environment, using mouse in utero electroporation and a conditional genetic strategy to misexpress Ptf1a exclusively in developing cortical pyramidal cells. (jneurosci.org)
  • Moreover, Ptf1a alters neuronal morphology, inducing the radial redistribution and branching of neurites in cortical pyramidal cells. (jneurosci.org)
  • Thus Ptf1a is sufficient, even in a dramatically different neuronal precursor, to cell autonomously promote characteristics of an inhibitory peptidergic identity, providing the first example of a single transcription factor that can direct an inhibitory peptidergic fate. (jneurosci.org)
  • However, the full complement of transcription factors that confer subtype-specific identities has yet to be elucidated, and their abilities to cell autonomously direct neuronal identity have yet to be fully characterized. (jneurosci.org)
  • Different thalamocortical neuronal assemblies would give rise to sleep spindles, and these cell assemblies would affect the burst initiator for the sharp waves. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, there are other neuronal cell types that manifest varying degrees of amplitude decrement during backpropagation. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is thought that this is due to the fact that each neuronal cell type contains varying numbers of the voltage-gated channels required to propagate a dendritic action potential. (wikipedia.org)
  • whereas
  • Crossed corticostriatal (CCS) cells innervate both the ipsilateral and contralateral striatum, whereas other corticostriatal cells selectively innervate the ipsilateral striatum but project also to the brainstem through the pyramidal tract. (jneurosci.org)
  • By using monoclonal antibodies, the NCX1 protein was localized to pyramidal cells, whereas NCX2 was predominantly found on glial cell plasma membranes in cell culture ( 19 ). (pnas.org)
  • neural
  • The neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), has been shown to be an obligate regulator of synaptic stability and pruning during critical periods of cortical maturation. (frontiersin.org)
  • The "far-fetched" possibility of using light for selectively controlling precise neural activity (action potential) patterns within subtypes of cells in the brain was thought of by Francis Crick in his Kuffler Lectures at the University of California in San Diego in 1999. (wikipedia.org)
  • excitation
  • Considering the interlaminar connectivity of pyramidal cells, the reverberating excitation could occur in individual cortical layers ( Thomson and Morris, 2002 ), perhaps within layer V ( Sanchez-Vives and McCormick, 2000 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • slices
  • Previous studies revealed the basic features governing the integration of LOT synaptic input and spike output of layer 2/3 (L2/3) principal cells in APC slices. (jneurosci.org)
  • layer
  • Laser scanning photostimulation revealed that NCAM deletion increased the strength of close-in inhibitory connections to layer 2/3 pyramidal cells of the ACC. (frontiersin.org)
  • We examined the integrity of the CDC42-p21-activated serine/threonine protein kinases (PAK)-LIM domain-containing serine/threonine protein kinases (LIMK) signaling pathway in schizophrenia in a layer-specific and cell type-specific fashion in DLPFC deep layer 3. (docphin.com)
  • These same transcripts also were quantified by microarray in samples of individually microdissected deep layer 3 pyramidal cells from a subset of the same subjects and from monkeys exposed to antipsychotics. (docphin.com)
  • In contrast, CDC42 and PAK1 messenger RNA levels were significantly downregulated specifically in deep layer 3 pyramidal cells. (docphin.com)
  • Findings from the present and prior studies converge on synergistic alterations in CDC42 signaling pathway that could destabilize actin dynamics and produce spine deficits preferentially in deep layer 3 pyramidal cells in schizophrenia. (docphin.com)
  • Perforant path input from EC layer II enters the dentate gyrus and is relayed to region CA3 (and to mossy cells, located in the hilus of the dentate gyrus, which then send information to distant portions of the dentate gyrus where the cycle is repeated). (wikipedia.org)
  • Reelin knockout mice lack a single, distinct pyramidal cell body layer due to excess migration. (wikipedia.org)
  • collaterals
  • Using paired recordings of retrogradely labeled cells, we investigated the synaptic connectivity between two projection cell types: those projecting to the pons [corticopontine (CPn) cell], often with collaterals to the striatum, and those projecting to both sides of the striatum but not to the pons [crossed corticostriatal (CCS) cell]. (jneurosci.org)
  • membrane
  • Na + /Ca 2+ exchanger (NCX) and plasma membrane Ca 2+ -ATPase (PMCA) molecules play an essential role in Ca 2+ clearance across the plasma membrane in excitable cells ( 10 ). (pnas.org)
  • In this chapter we describe the membrane conductance system of the pyramidal cells that allows burst generation. (springer.com)
  • All PFC cells exhibited either subthreshold oscillation in membrane voltage or pacemaker-like rhythmic firing. (jneurosci.org)
  • distinct
  • Therefore, our data demonstrate that these two types of corticostriatal cells distinct in their dendritic morphologies show directional and domain-dependent preferences in their synaptic connectivity. (jneurosci.org)
  • Our results demonstrate distinct morphologies and selective patterns of synaptic connectivity between CCS and CPn cells. (jneurosci.org)
  • We show that the combined activity of distinct glomerular pathways recruits ensembles of pyramidal cells that are not activated by the individual pathways alone. (jneurosci.org)
  • mammalian
  • Formation of Hirano bodies in Dictyostelium and mammalian cells induces by expression of a modified form of an actin-crosslinking protein," J.Cell Sci. (wikipedia.org)
  • types
  • Four principal pyramidal cell types were identified and classified as regular spiking (RS) (19%), intrinsic bursting (IB) (64%), repetitive oscillatory bursting (ROB) (13%), and intermediate (IM) (4%) types. (jneurosci.org)
  • These electrophysiological and morphological properties of the four principal pyramidal PFC cell types have provided valuable details for understanding further how PFC processes input and transmit outputs to regions such as the NAc. (jneurosci.org)
  • undergo
  • Immature pyramidal cells undergo migration to occupy the cortical plate, where they further diversify. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ultimately, information from combinations of activated M/T cells belonging to different glomeruli is proposed to undergo a synthetic process in cortical brain regions to generate odor perception. (jneurosci.org)
  • These cells undergo synchronous and paroxysmal depolarizations, firing short sequences of action potentials called bursts. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • Consistent with this idea, altered expression of genes in the cell division cycle 42 (CDC42)-CDC42 effector protein (CDC42EP) signaling pathway, a key organizer of the actin cytoskeleton, was previously reported in DLPFC gray matter from subjects with schizophrenia. (docphin.com)
  • To identify expressing cells, they replaced the cytoplasmic tail of the algal protein with the fluorescent protein YFP, generating the first generally applicable optogenetic tool. (wikipedia.org)
  • quantify
  • To quantify and assess the statistical significance of this single-cell property, we identified the parameters of an extended integrate-and-fire (IF) model, which fit experimental data with high accuracy. (jneurosci.org)
  • ganglion cells
  • 1959) looked beyond the mechanisms for signal-noise discrimination in the frog's retina and were able to identify four classes of ganglion cells in the frog retina: sustained contrast detectors, net convexity detectors (or bug detectors), moving edge detectors, and net dimming detectors. (wikipedia.org)
  • sufficient
  • Together, these results indicated that CA1-restricted genetic manipulation of particular mRNA translations is sufficient to impair the consolidation and that consolidation of memories in CA1 pyramidal cells through eIF2α dephosphorylation depends more on transcription/translation of particular genes than on overall levels of general translation. (jneurosci.org)