• Membrane Proteins
  • In this experiment, several previously uncharacterized membrane proteins were selected to be screened. (wikipedia.org)
  • These uncharacterized membrane proteins were assayed for glucose transport ability by expression in HEK293T (human embryonic kidney) cells, which have negligible glucose transport ability in the normal state. (wikipedia.org)
  • These membrane proteins were co-expressed with a fluorescent FRET (Förster resonance energy transfer) glucose sensor localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). (wikipedia.org)
  • Genes
  • These recruited proteins are then responsible for the subsequent activation of other downstream proteins, including protein kinases (IKKi, IRAK1, IRAK4, and TBK1) that further amplify the signal and ultimately lead to the upregulation or suppression of genes that orchestrate inflammatory responses and other transcriptional events. (wikipedia.org)
  • Humans
  • G-protein coupled receptor 97 also known as adhesion G protein-coupled receptor G3 (ADGRG3) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ADGRG3 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, a gene coding for a protein analogous to TLR10 in humans is present in mice, but appears to have been damaged at some point in the past by a retrovirus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Toll-like receptor 11 (TLR11) is a protein that in mice is encoded by the gene TLR11, whereas in humans it is represented by a pseudogene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human TLR 11 contains stop codons, meaning functional TLR 11 protein is not found in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Wild-type mice are able to produce an immune response, marked by IL-12 and IFN-gamma production that is unseen in humans, who lack a functional TLR 11 protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • A large part of DNA (more than 98% for humans) is non-coding, meaning that these sections do not serve as patterns for protein sequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, the most common hemoglobin sequences in humans and chimpanzees are nearly identical, differing by only one amino acid in both the alpha and the beta globin protein chains[citation needed]. (wikipedia.org)
  • lipids
  • alongside proteins, lipids and complex carbohydrates (polysaccharides), they are one of the four major types of macromolecules that are essential for all known forms of life. (wikipedia.org)
  • fungi
  • As long as this scheme remained dominant, the protozoa were understood to be animals and studied in departments of Zoology, while photosynthetic microorganisms and microscopic fungi-the so-called Protophyta-were assigned to the Plants, and studied in departments of Botany. (wikipedia.org)
  • extracellular
  • Adhesion GPCRs are characterized by an extended extracellular region often possessing N-terminal protein modules that is linked to a TM7 region via a domain known as the GPCR-Autoproteolysis INducing (GAIN) domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteins with subgroup 1 TIR domains are receptors for interleukins that are produced by macrophages, monocytes, and dendritic cells and all have extracellular Immunoglobulin (Ig) domains. (wikipedia.org)
  • falciparum
  • Importantly, this 5' UTR element efficiently inhibits translation even in the context of a heterologous upstream region.Further, we found var 5' UTRs to be significantly enriched in uAUGs which are known to impair the efficiency of protein translation in other eukaryotes.Our findings suggest that regulation at the post-transcriptional level is a common feature in the control of PfEMP1 expression in P. falciparum. (nih.gov)
  • However, it has proved difficult to obtain soluble protein.Here we have predicted a new domain boundary in P. falciparum GyrA that corresponds to the C-terminal domain of prokaryotic GyrA and successfully purified it in a soluble form.Removal of a unique Asn-rich region in the P. falciparum protein did not result in a significant change, suggesting it is dispensable for DNA wrapping. (nih.gov)
  • Biochemical analyses revealed many similarities between the C-terminal domains of GyrA from E. coli and P. falciparum, suggesting that despite its considerably larger size, the malarial protein carries out a similar DNA wrapping function. (nih.gov)
  • Removal of a unique Asn-rich region in the P. falciparum protein did not result in a significant change, suggesting it is dispensable for DNA wrapping. (nih.gov)
  • parasites
  • As proof-of-concept, these parasites were used to develop functional screening assays for quantifying the effects of Brefeldin A, an inhibitor of protein secretion, and Furosemide, an inhibitor of new permeation pathways used by parasites to acquire plasma nutrients. (nih.gov)
  • Error bars indicate SD.D. Immunoblot analysis indicates that expression of other rhoptry and micronemal proteins such as PfRh4, PfRON4 and PfEBA175 were not reduced by rapamycin treatment.E. Schizonts of rapamycin-treated parasites were dual labelled with anti-MSP1 (red) and anti-PfAMA1 (green) to show reduction in PfAMA1 expression. (nih.gov)
  • There was approximately 81% knockdown of AMA1 protein levels across the four time points when compared with untreated parasites (Fig. 4A-C). Expression of other invasion proteins such as PfRh4, RON4 and EBA175 was unaffected (Fig. 4D). (nih.gov)
  • vermiformis
  • Identification of a Gal/GalNAc lectin in the protozoan Hartmannella vermiformis as a potential receptor for attachment and invasion by the Legionnaires' disease bacterium. (nih.gov)
  • To define the molecular events involved in invasion of protozoa by L. pneumophila, we examined the role of protein tyrosine phosphorylation of the protozoan host Hartmannella vermiformis upon attachment and invasion by L. pneumophila. (nih.gov)
  • Interestingly, inhibition of invasion by Gal and GalNAc was associated with inhibition of bacterial-induced tyrosine dephosphorylation of H. vermiformis proteins. (nih.gov)
  • We conclude that attachment of L. pneumophila to the H. vermiformis 170-kD lectin is required for invasion and is associated with tyrosine dephosphorylation of the Gal lectin and other host proteins. (nih.gov)
  • Identification of the 170-kD protein of H. vermiformis which is dephosphorylated upon contact and invasion by L. pneumophila. (nih.gov)
  • algae
  • Most algae contain one or a few WRKY proteins, whereas even the earliest land plant, moss (Physcomitrella patens), possesses at least 30 WRKY factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Of these two WRKY proteins, WRKY1 of Giardia has been demonstrated to be involved in cell wall formation, a process also likely important to algae and early land plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • It remains unclear how and why the WRKY proteins dramatically expanded and diversified in the plant lineage but not algae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene
  • The amount of Pfama1 gene excision in the B4 and 2F9 populations was between 70-92% and we next determined the corresponding level of PfAMA1 protein expression when Cre recombinase activity was induced by rapamycin. (nih.gov)
  • This level of PfAMA1 protein knockdown correlated with the level of Pfama1 gene excision mediated by DiCre. (nih.gov)
  • They received their name from their similarity to the protein coded by the toll gene identified in Drosophila in 1985 by Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard. (wikipedia.org)
  • interactions
  • Upon activation, TLRs recruit adapter proteins (proteins that mediate other protein-protein interactions) within the cytosol of the immune cell in order to propagate the antigen-induced signal transduction pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • These compact structures guide the interactions between DNA and other proteins, helping control which parts of the DNA are transcribed. (wikipedia.org)
  • These roles are governed by an ever increasingly complex network of interactions with other DNA-binding and non-DNA-binding proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptors
  • Although attachment and invasion of human macrophages by L. pneumophila is mediated in part by the complement receptors CR1 and CR3, the protozoan receptor involved in bacterial attachment and invasion has not been identified. (nih.gov)
  • Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a class of proteins that play a key role in the innate immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteins in the TLR family are pattern recognition receptors whose task is to alert the immune system of foreign invaders. (wikipedia.org)
  • The properties of the VSG coat that enable immune evasion are: Shielding - the dense nature of the VSG coat (VSG proteins pack shoulder-to-shoulder) prevents the immune system of the mammalian host from accessing the plasma membrane or any other parasitic invariant surface epitopes (such as ion channels, transporters, receptors etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • novel
  • A year later, two WRKY transcription factors, ABF1 and ABF2, established the role of WRKY proteins as a novel family of transcriptional regulators. (wikipedia.org)
  • The generalized reaction catalyzed by known proteins of this family is: sugars (in) ⇌ sugars (out) SWEETs were originally identified in Arabidopsis thaliana, in a screen for novel facilitators of transmembrane glucose transport. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacterium
  • The Legionnaire's disease bacterium, Legionella pneumophila, is a facultative intracellular pathogen which invades and replicates within two evolutionarily distant hosts, free-living protozoa and mammalian cells. (nih.gov)
  • organisms
  • gRNA is a form of RNA (ribonucleic acid) that controls the process of RNA editing, within the mitochondria of kinetoplastid organisms (a type of protozoa). (sciencephoto.com)
  • Historically, protozoa were defined as single-celled animals or organisms with animal-like behaviors, such as motility and predation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The use of Protozoa as a formal taxon has been discouraged by some recent researchers, mainly because the term, which is formed from the Greek protos "first" + zoia, plural of zoion, "animal", implies kinship with animals (metazoa) and promotes an arbitrary separation of "animal-like" from "plant-like" organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1860, John Hogg argued against the use of "protozoa", on the grounds that "naturalists are divided in opinion-and probably some will ever continue so-whether many of these organisms, or living beings, are animals or plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • chemistry
  • This work resulted in his sharing with John Kendrew the 1962 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for their studies of the structures of globular proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • gondii
  • Thus profilin is a conserved, essential protein for T. gondii infection efficacy. (wikipedia.org)
  • The surface of T. gondii is coated with a family of developmentally regulated glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-linked proteins (SRSs), of which SAG1 is the prototypic member. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • GPR97 actives cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), NF-κB, and small GTPases to regulate cellular functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • This form of cellular motion requires profilin, an actin filament binding protein that helps restructure the actin cytoskeleton. (wikipedia.org)
  • lectin
  • One of the tyrosine dephosphorylated proteins was identified as the 170-kD galactose/N-acetylgalactosamine-inhibitable lectin (Gal/GalNAc) using immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting by antibodies generated against the Gal/GalNAc lectin of the protozoan Entamoeba histolytica. (nih.gov)
  • nitric oxide
  • The molecule also carries the important regulatory molecule nitric oxide bound to a globin protein thiol group, releasing it at the same time as oxygen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Major
  • Invasion and intracellular replication within protozoa are thought to be major factors in the transmission of Legionnaire's disease. (nih.gov)
  • Animals
  • Goldfuss erected Protozoa as a class containing what he believed to be the simplest animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • The definition of Protozoa as a phylum or sub-kingdom made up of "unicellular animals" was adopted by the zoologist Otto Bütschli-celebrated at his centenary as the "architect of protozoology"-and the term came into wide use. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a phylum under Animalia, the Protozoa were firmly rooted in the old "two-kingdom" classification of life, according to which all living beings were classified as either animals or plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • mRNA
  • The team noticed that mRNA and protein for SWEETs 11, 12, and 15 are each expressed at high levels during some stage of embryo development. (wikipedia.org)
  • glucose
  • The enzymatic studies showed that the protozoal cell extract degraded starch to reducing products with the rate being equivalent to 2.4 ± 0.47 μmol/L glucose per mg protein per min. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The degradation rate of maltose was only 0.05 μmol/L glucose per mg protein per min. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Solute carrier family TOG Superfamily Transporter Classification Database Glucose transporter Transport protein Ge, Y. X. (wikipedia.org)
  • synthesis
  • In the case of a viral factor, the infected cell may shut off its protein synthesis and may undergo programmed cell death (apoptosis). (wikipedia.org)
  • whereas
  • To date, the fibrolytic properties of this protozoan were studied by Coleman ( 1985 ) whereas its ability to digest and utilize starch is not well known. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Group I WRKY proteins are primarily denoted by the presence of two WRKY protein domains, whereas both groups II and III each possess only one domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • invasion
  • Bacterial attachment and invasion were associated with a time-dependent tyrosine dephosphorylation of multiple host cell proteins. (nih.gov)
  • known
  • Our focus is on betaCOP, one of the most well known components of the COPI multi-protein complex. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Further, we found var 5' UTRs to be significantly enriched in uAUGs which are known to impair the efficiency of protein translation in other eukaryotes. (nih.gov)
  • However, little is known about the function of these proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The reason for this is that some already known, important protein targets do not have a high degree (are not hubs) and also, perturbing some hubs could result in unwanted physiological effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • class
  • The WRKY transcription factor family (pronounced 'worky') is a class of DNA-binding proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term Protozoa was introduced in 1818 by German paleontologist and zoologist Georg August Goldfuss for a taxonomic class, but in later classification schemes the group was elevated to higher ranks, including phylum, subkingdom and kingdom. (wikipedia.org)
  • subunit
  • The name hemoglobin is derived from the words heme and globin, reflecting the fact that each subunit of hemoglobin is a globular protein with an embedded heme group. (wikipedia.org)
  • antibody
  • Following SDS-PAGE, proteins were probed with antiphosphotyrosine (anti-ptyr) antibody and visualized with an enhanced chemiluminescence kit as described in Materials and Methods. (nih.gov)
  • family
  • Shewanella-like phosphatases, abbreviated as Shelphs, are a group of enzymes structurally related to protein serine/threonine phosphatases (PPP family). (wikipedia.org)