• Genes
  • Cancer is the product of alterations in oncogenes, tumour suppressor genes and most recently microRNA genes not as a single event or single change but rather as a multistep process. (ejomr.org)
  • The identification though of microRNA genes in regions of the genome that are consistently involved in chromosomal rearrangements in cancer cells and do not contain oncogenes or tumour suppressor genes signifies a causative event in carcinogenesis [ 7 - 9 ]. (ejomr.org)
  • The significance of microRNAs in cancer is accentuated by the fact that they can function as oncogenes by down-regulating tumour suppressor genes or as tumour suppressor genes by down-regulating oncogenes. (ejomr.org)
  • Subsequent experiments showed that the normal, cellular Raf genes can also mutate to become oncogenes, by "overdriving" MEK1/2 and ERK1/2 activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tuberous sclerosis is an autosomal recessive disease in which the genes required to express the tumor-suppressant proteins that form the TSC complex is mutated or missing, so the TSC complex is unable to function properly. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additional functions of lipoarabinommanan are thought to include the neutralization of cytotoxic oxygen free radicals produced by macrophages, inhibition of protein kinase C, and induction of early response genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • Fos was first isolated as the cellular homologue of two viral v-fos oncogenes, both of which induce osteosarcoma in mice and rats. (wikipedia.org)
  • In cellular biology, dependence receptors are proteins that mediate programmed cell death by monitoring the absence of certain trophic factors (or, equivalently, the presence of anti-trophic factors) that otherwise serve as ligands (interactors) for the dependence receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • BCL-2 is localized to the outer membrane of mitochondria, where it plays an important role in promoting cellular survival and inhibiting the actions of pro-apoptotic proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Akt1 is also able to induce protein synthesis pathways, and is therefore a key signaling protein in the cellular pathways that lead to skeletal muscle hypertrophy, and general tissue growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • isoforms
  • Multiple isoforms of CD45 (180-235 kDa) can be generated asa result of alternative splicing of three variable exons 4(A), 5(B) and 6(C), encoding sequences at the N-terminal extracellular domain of the molecule. (githubusercontent.com)
  • The two isoforms of Bcl-2, Isoform 1, also known as 1G5M, and Isoform 2, also known as 1G5O/1GJH, exhibit a similar fold. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, results in the ability of these isoforms to bind to the BAD and BAK proteins, as well as in the structural topology and electrostatic potential of the binding groove, suggest differences in antiapoptotic activity for the two isoforms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Abnormal
  • Macroautophagy, often referred to as autophagy, is a catabolic process that results in the autophagosomic-lysosomal degradation of bulk cytoplasmic contents, abnormal protein aggregates, and excess or damaged organelles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some evidence suggests that this may result from abnormal expression of Bcl-2 and increased expression of caspase-3. (wikipedia.org)
  • residues
  • The dynamic reversible methylation of lysine residues on histone proteins is central to chromatin biology. (stanford.edu)
  • This structural motif twists two alpha helical protein domains into a "coiled coil," characterized by a periodicity of 3.5 residues per turn and repetitive leucines appearing at every seventh position of the polypeptide chain. (wikipedia.org)
  • The last 23 residues of PIM2 are quite different from PIM1, as PIM2 contains 6 proline residues in this region and is not believed to form the same tertiary structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumors
  • There are evidences that initiation, maintenance and metastasis of tumors are through cancer stem cells (CSCs) in tumors [ 6 ], and that CSCs are crucial for TNBC maintenance and progression as well [ 7 ]. (thno.org)
  • We recently reported that expression of the full-length A-Raf protein requires the expression of the splice factor hnRNP H, which is upregulated in several tumors including colon and head and neck cancers ( 6 , 15 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • lipids
  • In 1904, Friedrich Meves, made the first recorded observation of mitochondria in plants in cells of the white waterlily, Nymphaea alba and in 1908, along with Claudius Regaud, suggested that they contain proteins and lipids. (wikipedia.org)
  • repression
  • The protein contains three domains, an N-terminal DNA-binding domain, a central transcriptional activation domain and a C-terminal domain involved in transcriptional repression. (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Protein Expression in Basal Cell Adenomas and Basal Cell Adenocarcinomas. (uiowa.edu)
  • Rapamycin also can lower cyclin D and cyclin E protein expression includ ing downstream effectors involved in cell cycle progres sion. (thrombininhibitors.com)
  • Low c-Myc reduces hnRNP H expression and switches a-raf splicing to produce A-Raf short , a truncated protein. (aacrjournals.org)
  • However, elevated A-Raf expression levels have been observed in a number of malignancies including astrocytomas ( 12 ), pancreatic ductal carcinoma ( 13 ), angioimmunoblastic lymphadenopathies ( 14 ), head and neck squamous cell carcinomas, and colon carcinomas ( 6 , 15 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • BAG3 is able to stimulate the expression of cytoskeleton proteins in response to mechanical tension by activating the transcription regulators YAP1 and WWTR1. (wikipedia.org)
  • kappa
  • This protein functions as a transcriptional coactivator that activates through its association with NF-kappa B homodimers. (wikipedia.org)
  • oncogenic
  • The protein is involved in the activation of several oncogenic pathways as well as in tumor metastasis and angiogenesis. (clontech.com)
  • binds
  • The Ras-binding domain displays a ubiquitin-like fold (like many other small G-protein associating domains) and selectively binds GTP-bound Ras proteins only. (wikipedia.org)
  • Serine
  • This hinge region contains a small, conserved island of amino acids, that are responsible for 14-3-3 protein recognition, but only when a critical serine (Ser259 in human c-Raf) is phosphorylated. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • The c-Met (HGFR) assay can be used to measure soluble human c-Met protein in serum, EDTA plasma, or cell culture supernatants. (clontech.com)
  • this protein is overexpressed or mutated in many tumor cell types and plays key roles in tumor cell proliferation, survival, invasion, and metastasis, and tumor angiogenesis. (medkoo.com)
  • Other studies have shown that dendritic cell lifespan may be partly controlled by a timer dependent on anti-apoptotic Bcl-2. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein is largely involved in the mTOR pathway and the regulation of the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein is a lipid-anchored, cell-membrane protein with five repeats of the RAS-related GTP-binding region. (wikipedia.org)
  • Its activity is strongly regulated within the cell by tumor-suppressant proteins that form the TSC complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dephosphorylated Bad serves as a pro-apoptotic protein and its activation allows for cell survival. (wikipedia.org)
  • transcriptional
  • Apart from the "leucine zipper" and the "basic region" which are important for dimerization and DNA-binding, the c-jun protein contains three short regions, which consist of clusters of negatively charged amino acids in its N-terminal half that are important for transcriptional activation in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • known
  • citation needed] Akt possesses a protein domain known as a PH domain, or Pleckstrin Homology domain, named after Pleckstrin, the protein in which it was first discovered. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • It is a leukocyte membrane protein expressed specifically by lymphohematopoietic progenitor cells. (githubusercontent.com)
  • This protein plays an essential role in the regulation of hematopoiesis and may play a role in tumorigenesis, including the regulation of miR-155 in B-cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus cells that express these proteins at sufficient concentrations manifest a state of dependence on their respective ligands. (wikipedia.org)
  • This protein acts as a sequence-specific repressor of transcription, and has been shown to modulate the STAT-dependent Interleukin 4 (IL-4) responses of B cells. (wikipedia.org)