• Genes
  • Cancer is the product of alterations in oncogenes, tumour suppressor genes and most recently microRNA genes not as a single event or single change but rather as a multistep process. (ejomr.org)
  • The identification though of microRNA genes in regions of the genome that are consistently involved in chromosomal rearrangements in cancer cells and do not contain oncogenes or tumour suppressor genes signifies a causative event in carcinogenesis [ 7 - 9 ]. (ejomr.org)
  • The significance of microRNAs in cancer is accentuated by the fact that they can function as oncogenes by down-regulating tumour suppressor genes or as tumour suppressor genes by down-regulating oncogenes. (ejomr.org)
  • The inhibition of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) signaling pathway or the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway attenuated TGF-β1-induced expression of subsets of these genes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Subsequent experiments showed that the normal, cellular Raf genes can also mutate to become oncogenes, by "overdriving" MEK1/2 and ERK1/2 activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tuberous sclerosis is an autosomal recessive disease in which the genes required to express the tumor-suppressant proteins that form the TSC complex is mutated or missing, so the TSC complex is unable to function properly. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additional functions of lipoarabinommanan are thought to include the neutralization of cytotoxic oxygen free radicals produced by macrophages, inhibition of protein kinase C, and induction of early response genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • Fos was first isolated as the cellular homologue of two viral v-fos oncogenes, both of which induce osteosarcoma in mice and rats. (wikipedia.org)
  • In cellular biology, dependence receptors are proteins that mediate programmed cell death by monitoring the absence of certain trophic factors (or, equivalently, the presence of anti-trophic factors) that otherwise serve as ligands (interactors) for the dependence receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • BCL-2 is localized to the outer membrane of mitochondria, where it plays an important role in promoting cellular survival and inhibiting the actions of pro-apoptotic proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Akt1 is also able to induce protein synthesis pathways, and is therefore a key signaling protein in the cellular pathways that lead to skeletal muscle hypertrophy, and general tissue growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • isoforms
  • Multiple isoforms of CD45 (180-235 kDa) can be generated asa result of alternative splicing of three variable exons 4(A), 5(B) and 6(C), encoding sequences at the N-terminal extracellular domain of the molecule. (githubusercontent.com)
  • The two isoforms of Bcl-2, Isoform 1, also known as 1G5M, and Isoform 2, also known as 1G5O/1GJH, exhibit a similar fold. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, results in the ability of these isoforms to bind to the BAD and BAK proteins, as well as in the structural topology and electrostatic potential of the binding groove, suggest differences in antiapoptotic activity for the two isoforms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Abnormal
  • Macroautophagy, often referred to as autophagy, is a catabolic process that results in the autophagosomic-lysosomal degradation of bulk cytoplasmic contents, abnormal protein aggregates, and excess or damaged organelles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some evidence suggests that this may result from abnormal expression of Bcl-2 and increased expression of caspase-3. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulate
  • It has been demonstrated that BAG1 and BAG 3 regulate the proteasomal and lysosomal protein elimination pathways, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • BCL-2 is known to regulate mitochondrial dynamics, and is involved in the regulation of mitochondrial fusion and fission. (wikipedia.org)
  • Specifically, the TSC2 subunit, tuberin of the complex interacts with and inhibits RHEB to regulate the protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • translocation
  • Bcl-2 is over expressed in follicular lymphomas with the translocation t(14;18)(q32;q21), detected in 70 to 95% of follicular lymphomas and 20% of diffuse large B cell lymphomas. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The NF-kappa B precursor p105 and the proto-oncogene product Bcl-3 are I kappa B molecules and control nuclear translocation of NF-kappa B". EMBO J. 12 (1): 213-22. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tumor
  • The protein is involved in the activation of several oncogenic pathways as well as in tumor metastasis and angiogenesis. (clontech.com)
  • this protein is overexpressed or mutated in many tumor cell types and plays key roles in tumor cell proliferation, survival, invasion, and metastasis, and tumor angiogenesis. (medkoo.com)
  • Its activity is strongly regulated within the cell by tumor-suppressant proteins that form the TSC complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • phosphorylation
  • Constitutive phosphorylation of 4E-BP1 is commonly found in cancers and contributes to the sustrained translation of malignancy related transcripts, among which are c-Myc and Cyclin D. Knockdown of PIM2 by iRNA strongly reduced the accumulation of oncogenic proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Activation of a PI3K pathway is sufficient to trigger phosphorylation of the Bcl-2 family member Bad by ManLAM. (wikipedia.org)
  • By activating a phosphatase, LAM can inhibit LPS and IFN-γ induced protein tyrosine phosphorylation in monocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • kappa
  • This protein functions as a transcriptional coactivator that activates through its association with NF-kappa B homodimers. (wikipedia.org)
  • binds
  • The Ras-binding domain displays a ubiquitin-like fold (like many other small G-protein associating domains) and selectively binds GTP-bound Ras proteins only. (wikipedia.org)
  • effectors
  • Rapamycin also can lower cyclin D and cyclin E protein expression includ ing downstream effectors involved in cell cycle progres sion. (thrombininhibitors.com)
  • This could lead to the disregulation of many signalling proteins and effectors within the cell, including RHEB. (wikipedia.org)
  • Serine
  • This hinge region contains a small, conserved island of amino acids, that are responsible for 14-3-3 protein recognition, but only when a critical serine (Ser259 in human c-Raf) is phosphorylated. (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • BAG3 is able to stimulate the expression of cytoskeleton proteins in response to mechanical tension by activating the transcription regulators YAP1 and WWTR1. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • The c-Met (HGFR) assay can be used to measure soluble human c-Met protein in serum, EDTA plasma, or cell culture supernatants. (clontech.com)
  • Other studies have shown that dendritic cell lifespan may be partly controlled by a timer dependent on anti-apoptotic Bcl-2. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein is largely involved in the mTOR pathway and the regulation of the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein is a lipid-anchored, cell-membrane protein with five repeats of the RAS-related GTP-binding region. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dephosphorylated Bad serves as a pro-apoptotic protein and its activation allows for cell survival. (wikipedia.org)
  • mediate
  • Other models suggest that ManLAM acts to mediate immunosuppressive effects through suppression of LPS-induced IL-12 p40 protein production. (wikipedia.org)
  • structural
  • In addition to having its complete genome buy Panipenem sequenced, the identity and locations of several of its structural proteins have been established through comparisons of three-dimensional, cryo-electron microscopic structures of wild-type N4 and its mutants . (healthandwellnesssource.org)
  • known
  • citation needed] Akt possesses a protein domain known as a PH domain, or Pleckstrin Homology domain, named after Pleckstrin, the protein in which it was first discovered. (wikipedia.org)
  • amino
  • Apart from the "leucine zipper" and the "basic region" which are important for dimerization and DNA-binding, the c-jun protein contains three short regions, which consist of clusters of negatively charged amino acids in its N-terminal half that are important for transcriptional activation in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • All the BAG proteins have an approximately 45-amino acid BAG domain near the C terminus but differ markedly in their N-terminal regions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rheb is a 21-kDa protein monomer composed of 184 amino acids. (wikipedia.org)