• kinase
  • Carcinogenesis usually occurs as a result of chemical or biological damage to normal cells in a multistep and multifactor process composed of genetic derangement, aberrant signal transduction, and protein kinase activation. (hindawi.com)
  • The inhibition of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) signaling pathway or the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway attenuated TGF-β1-induced expression of subsets of these genes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The tyrosine-protein kinase BLK has been shown to interact with UBE3A. (wikipedia.org)
  • Three related serine/threonine kinases, UNC-51-like kinase -1, -2, and -3 (ULK1, ULK2, UKL3), which play a similar role as the yeast Atg1, act downstream of the mTOR complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inhibitor acts as ATP mimetic in ATP binding pocket Staurosporine and Ruthenium Compound 12 General Structure of Organoruthenium inhibitor PIM 2 (along with PIM1) has a unique binding pocket for ATP with a hinged region, making it an attractive target for potent small-molecule PIM kinase inhibitors. (wikipedia.org)
  • The c-Raf protein is part of the ERK1/2 pathway as a MAP kinase kinase kinase (MAP3K) that functions downstream of the Ras subfamily of membrane associated GTPases. (wikipedia.org)
  • C-Raf is a member of the Raf kinase family of serine/threonine-specific protein kinases, from the TKL (Tyrosine-kinase-like) group of kinases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Now we know that c-Raf is a principal component of the first described mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway: ERK1/2 signaling. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is similar to the diacylglycerol-binding C1 domains of protein kinase C (PKC) enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The close proximity of these two domains as well as several lines of experimental data suggest that they act as a single unit to negatively regulate the activity of the protein kinase domain, by direct physical interaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Between the autoinhibitory domain block and the catalytic kinase domain, a long segment - characteristic to all Raf proteins - can be found. (wikipedia.org)
  • Imatinib is a 2-phenyl amino pyrimidine derivative that functions as a specific inhibitor of a number of tyrosine kinase enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, PI 3-kinases may be activated by a G protein coupled receptor or receptor tyrosine kinase such as the insulin receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once correctly positioned at the membrane via binding of PIP3, Akt can then be phosphorylated by its activating kinases, phosphoinositide dependent kinase 1 (PDPK1 at threonine 308) and the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2 at serine 473), first by mTORC2. (wikipedia.org)
  • mTORC2 therefore functionally acts as the long-sought PDK2 molecule, although other molecules, including integrin-linked kinase (ILK) and mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase-2 (MAPKAPK2) can also serve as PDK2. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies have suggested that cAMP-elevating agents could also activate Akt through protein kinase A (PKA) in the presence of insulin. (wikipedia.org)
  • 5' adenosine-monophospate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has also been found to be an effector for RHEB. (wikipedia.org)
  • AMPK is a protein kinase that begins a phosphorylation cascade leading to autophagy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additional functions of lipoarabinommanan are thought to include the neutralization of cytotoxic oxygen free radicals produced by macrophages, inhibition of protein kinase C, and induction of early response genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genes
  • Specific translocations, t(2;13)(q35;q14) and variant t(1;13)(p36;q14) are most frequent in alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma, resulting in PAX3-FKHR and PAX7-FKHR fusion genes, respectively. (cancerindex.org)
  • Cancer is the product of alterations in oncogenes, tumour suppressor genes and most recently microRNA genes not as a single event or single change but rather as a multistep process. (ejomr.org)
  • The identification though of microRNA genes in regions of the genome that are consistently involved in chromosomal rearrangements in cancer cells and do not contain oncogenes or tumour suppressor genes signifies a causative event in carcinogenesis [ 7 - 9 ]. (ejomr.org)
  • The significance of microRNAs in cancer is accentuated by the fact that they can function as oncogenes by down-regulating tumour suppressor genes or as tumour suppressor genes by down-regulating oncogenes. (ejomr.org)
  • Subsequent experiments showed that the normal, cellular Raf genes can also mutate to become oncogenes, by "overdriving" MEK1/2 and ERK1/2 activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tuberous sclerosis is an autosomal recessive disease in which the genes required to express the tumor-suppressant proteins that form the TSC complex is mutated or missing, so the TSC complex is unable to function properly. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • Fos was first isolated as the cellular homologue of two viral v-fos oncogenes, both of which induce osteosarcoma in mice and rats. (wikipedia.org)
  • It deals with the structure and function of cellular components such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids and other biomolecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • In cellular biology, dependence receptors are proteins that mediate programmed cell death by monitoring the absence of certain trophic factors (or, equivalently, the presence of anti-trophic factors) that otherwise serve as ligands (interactors) for the dependence receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • BCL-2 is localized to the outer membrane of mitochondria, where it plays an important role in promoting cellular survival and inhibiting the actions of pro-apoptotic proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Akt1 is also able to induce protein synthesis pathways, and is therefore a key signaling protein in the cellular pathways that lead to skeletal muscle hypertrophy, and general tissue growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Abnormal
  • Macroautophagy, often referred to as autophagy, is a catabolic process that results in the autophagosomic-lysosomal degradation of bulk cytoplasmic contents, abnormal protein aggregates, and excess or damaged organelles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some evidence suggests that this may result from abnormal expression of Bcl-2 and increased expression of caspase-3. (wikipedia.org)
  • nucleotide
  • For example, RHEB is an activator for nucleotide synthesis by binding carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase 2, aspartate transcarbamylase, and dihydroorotase (CAD), an enzyme required for de novo pyrimidine nucleotide synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibition
  • Migration of keloid keratinocytes, previously shown to be increased compared with normal keratinocytes, was significantly reduced by inhibition of TGF-β1 or ERK1/2 signaling. (biomedcentral.com)
  • binds
  • c-Met inhibitor ARQ 197 binds to the c-Met protein and disrupts c-Met signal transduction pathways, which may induce cell death in tumor cells overexpressing c-Met protein or expressing consitutively activated c-Met protein. (medkoo.com)
  • The Ras-binding domain displays a ubiquitin-like fold (like many other small G-protein associating domains) and selectively binds GTP-bound Ras proteins only. (wikipedia.org)
  • repression
  • The protein contains three domains, an N-terminal DNA-binding domain, a central transcriptional activation domain and a C-terminal domain involved in transcriptional repression. (wikipedia.org)
  • transcription
  • The 105 kD protein is a Rel protein-specific transcription inhibitor and the 50 kD protein is a DNA binding subunit of the NF-kappaB (NF-κB) protein complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • Myb proto-oncogene protein is a member of the MYB (myeloblastosis) family of transcription factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • BAG3 is able to stimulate the expression of cytoskeleton proteins in response to mechanical tension by activating the transcription regulators YAP1 and WWTR1. (wikipedia.org)
  • transcription factors ces-1 and ces-2, and ced-8, which controls the timing of cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • This protein acts as a sequence-specific repressor of transcription, and has been shown to modulate the STAT-dependent Interleukin 4 (IL-4) responses of B cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • This protein can interact with several corepressor complexes to inhibit transcription. (wikipedia.org)
  • phosphorylation
  • Constitutive phosphorylation of 4E-BP1 is commonly found in cancers and contributes to the sustrained translation of malignancy related transcripts, among which are c-Myc and Cyclin D. Knockdown of PIM2 by iRNA strongly reduced the accumulation of oncogenic proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • By activating a phosphatase, LAM can inhibit LPS and IFN-γ induced protein tyrosine phosphorylation in monocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tumor
  • The protein is involved in the activation of several oncogenic pathways as well as in tumor metastasis and angiogenesis. (clontech.com)
  • this protein is overexpressed or mutated in many tumor cell types and plays key roles in tumor cell proliferation, survival, invasion, and metastasis, and tumor angiogenesis. (medkoo.com)
  • 2: Previdi S, Scolari F, Chilà R, Ricci F, Abbadessa G, Broggini M. Combination of the c-Met inhibitor tivantinib and zoledronic acid prevents tumor bone engraftment and inhibits progression of established bone metastases in a breast xenograft model. (medkoo.com)
  • Its activity is strongly regulated within the cell by tumor-suppressant proteins that form the TSC complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • signaling cascade
  • Experiments done on nuclear factor κB (NFκB) nuclear translocation in human perineural invasion (PNI) revealed that an up-regulation of NFκB and its downstream target, PIM-2, were components of an antiapoptosis signaling cascade, which is associated with cancer cells in PNI. (wikipedia.org)
  • effectors
  • Rapamycin also can lower cyclin D and cyclin E protein expression includ ing downstream effectors involved in cell cycle progres sion. (thrombininhibitors.com)
  • This could lead to the disregulation of many signalling proteins and effectors within the cell, including RHEB. (wikipedia.org)
  • transcript
  • this 0.75 kb transcript corresponds to the cytochrome protein cyt-1 that functions in the electron transport chain within the mitochondria. (wikipedia.org)
  • assay
  • The c-Met (HGFR) assay can be used to measure soluble human c-Met protein in serum, EDTA plasma, or cell culture supernatants. (clontech.com)
  • In clonogenic assay, cells expressing Lenti-CMV-TK were 2-fold more sensitive to GCV than Lenti-STAT3-NF-κB-TK transduced cells. (thno.org)
  • follicular
  • Bcl-2 is over expressed in follicular lymphomas with the translocation t(14;18)(q32;q21), detected in 70 to 95% of follicular lymphomas and 20% of diffuse large B cell lymphomas. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • serine
  • This hinge region contains a small, conserved island of amino acids, that are responsible for 14-3-3 protein recognition, but only when a critical serine (Ser259 in human c-Raf) is phosphorylated. (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • Considering that OPG expression did not transform in all groups, the RANKL,OPG ratio was reduce within the 2 week rapamycin group which might recommend decline in osteo chondroclastogenesis. (thrombininhibitors.com)
  • mutants
  • In addition to having its complete genome buy Panipenem sequenced, the identity and locations of several of its structural proteins have been established through comparisons of three-dimensional, cryo-electron microscopic structures of wild-type N4 and its mutants . (healthandwellnesssource.org)
  • mediate
  • Other models suggest that ManLAM acts to mediate immunosuppressive effects through suppression of LPS-induced IL-12 p40 protein production. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulation
  • This protein plays an essential role in the regulation of hematopoiesis and may play a role in tumorigenesis, including the regulation of miR-155 in B-cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Similarly to many other MAPKKKs, c-Raf is a multidomain protein, with several additional domains to aid the regulation of its catalytic activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • amino acids
  • Apart from the "leucine zipper" and the "basic region" which are important for dimerization and DNA-binding, the c-jun protein contains three short regions, which consist of clusters of negatively charged amino acids in its N-terminal half that are important for transcriptional activation in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein consists of 280 amino acids and has a molecular weight of 31824.42 Da. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rheb is a 21-kDa protein monomer composed of 184 amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • mitochondrial
  • CED-9 also includes a transmembrane domain on the C-terminal end of the structure that anchors the protein to the mitochondrial membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • known
  • citation needed] Akt possesses a protein domain known as a PH domain, or Pleckstrin Homology domain, named after Pleckstrin, the protein in which it was first discovered. (wikipedia.org)
  • structural
  • This structural motif twists two alpha helical protein domains into a "coiled coil," characterized by a periodicity of 3.5 residues per turn and repetitive leucines appearing at every seventh position of the polypeptide chain. (wikipedia.org)
  • bind
  • However, Fos proteins do not dimerize with each other and therefore can only bind to DNA when bound with Jun. (wikipedia.org)
  • All 3 proteins bind with high affinity to the ATPase domain of Hsc70 and inhibit its chaperone activity in a Hip-repressible manner. (wikipedia.org)
  • CED-4 consists of an asymmetric dimer of CED-4a and CED-4b proteins in which CED-9 can specifically recognize and bind CED-4a. (wikipedia.org)
  • domain
  • It is composed of an extracellular domain, a single transmembrane segment and two tandem intracytoplasmic protein-tyrosine phosphatase domains. (githubusercontent.com)
  • Contains 1 to 3 copies of the Fibronectin type III domain (Pfam:PF00041) followed by two copies of the Protein-tyrosine phosphatase (Pfam:PF00102) domain. (githubusercontent.com)
  • ZBTB7A protein, human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) FactorBook ZBTB7A This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, which is in the public domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plants contain a MYB-protein subfamily that is characterised by the R2R3-type MYB domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • BAG proteins compete with Hip-1 for binding to the Hsc70/Hsp70 ATPase domain and promote substrate release. (wikipedia.org)
  • All the BAG proteins have an approximately 45-amino acid BAG domain near the C terminus but differ markedly in their N-terminal regions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The C-terminal half of c-Raf folds into a single protein domain, responsible for catalytic activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • An exon 7 skipping splice variant encodes a shorter form of the protein which lacks the first two zinc fingers of the DNA binding domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • A trophic ligand is a molecule whose protein binding stimulates cell growth, differentiation, and/or survival. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other studies have shown that dendritic cell lifespan may be partly controlled by a timer dependent on anti-apoptotic Bcl-2. (wikipedia.org)
  • This process involves a signal and interaction cascade of proteins leading to the engulfment and death of the targeted cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • CED-3 is the final protease in the interaction network and is responsible for activating the proteins involved in cell disassembly. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein is a lipid-anchored, cell-membrane protein with five repeats of the RAS-related GTP-binding region. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dephosphorylated Bad serves as a pro-apoptotic protein and its activation allows for cell survival. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • It is a leukocyte membrane protein expressed specifically by lymphohematopoietic progenitor cells. (githubusercontent.com)
  • Thus cells that express these proteins at sufficient concentrations manifest a state of dependence on their respective ligands. (wikipedia.org)