• Enzymes
  • Many proteins are enzymes that catalyse biochemical reactions and are vital to metabolism . (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteins are also increasingly used as "industrial components," e.g., in biosensors and immobilized enzymes, because of their specificity, selectivity, and sensitivity. (springer.com)
  • Although reversible palmitoylation was discovered over 30 years ago, the enzymes that add palmitate to proteins (palmitoyl acyl transferases, PATs) and those that cleave the thioester bond (palmitoyl protein thioesterases, PPTs) had been elusive. (springer.com)
  • Mutational analysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Erf2 reveals a two-step reaction mechanism for protein palmitoylation by DHHC enzymes. (springer.com)
  • Other blood proteins act as enzymes, complement components, protease inhibitors or kinin precursors. (wikipedia.org)
  • The remainder of the plasma proteins (1%) are regulatory proteins, such as enzymes, proenzymes, and hormones. (wikipedia.org)
  • If a protein has an EC number, it should be on List of enzymes and not on this page, even if it fits into one of the categories below. (wikipedia.org)
  • Arp2/3 Coronin Dystrophin FtsZ Keratin Myosin Tubulin Collagen Elastin F-spondin Pikachurin Fibronectin Serum Amyloid P Component Serum albumin Complement proteins C1-inhibitor C3-convertase Factor VIII Factor XIII Protein C Protein S Protein Z Protein Z-related protease inhibitor Thrombin Von Willebrand Factor C-reactive protein Hemoglobin (oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin) Cadherin Ependymin Integrin NCAM Selectin Ion pumping enzymes are in the enzymes section. (wikipedia.org)
  • chromatin
  • Histones are the proteins that help chromatin to condense. (unc.edu)
  • FOX proteins also have pioneering transcription activity by being able to bind condensed chromatin during cell differentiation processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • PRC1 PRC2 PHC1 PHC2 Heterochromatin protein 1 (Cbx) BMI1 PCGF2 (Polycomb group RING finger protein 2) ortolog Bmi1 RYBP RING1 SUV39H1 (histone-lysine N-methyltransferase) L3mbtl2 EZH2 (Enhancer of Zeste Homolog 2) EED SUZ12 (Suppressor of Zeste 12) Jarid2 (jumonji, AT rich interactive domain 2) RE1-silencing transcription factor (REST) RNF2 CBFβ YY1 Bivalent chromatin Portoso M, Cavalli G (2008). (wikipedia.org)
  • Biochemistry
  • Proteins is abstracted and indexed in: Elsevier BIOBASE Biochemistry & Biophysics Citation Index Biological Abstracts BIOSIS Previews Biotechnology Citation Index Chemical Abstracts Service ChemWeb Current Contents/Life Sciences EMBASE Index Medicus/MEDLINE Science Citation Index Scopus According to the Journal Citation Reports, the journal has a 2011 impact factor of 3.392. (wikipedia.org)
  • known
  • PPP1R subunits (also known as PP1-interacting proteins, or PIPs) direct the substrate specificity of protein phosphatase 1 catalytic (PPP1C) subunits. (genenames.org)
  • Scientists studied proteins found in cells, known as histones, which are not part of the genetic code, but act as spools around which DNA is wound. (freerepublic.com)
  • The basic functional unit of a muscle, known as the sarcomere, consists of actin, myosin and tropomyosin proteins. (redorbit.com)
  • this latter technology has become known as protein engineering. (springer.com)
  • This forkhead motif is also known as the winged helix due to the butterfly-like appearance of the loops in the protein structure of the domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • SIR proteins have been identified in many screens, and have historically been known as SIR (silent information regulator), MAR (mating-type regulator), STE (sterile), CMT (change of mating type) or SSP (sterile suppressor) according to which screen led to their identification. (wikipedia.org)
  • The family of non-collagenous proteins known as SIBLING proteins, standing for small integrin-binding ligand, N-linked glycoprotein, are components of the extracellular matrix of bone and dentin. (wikipedia.org)
  • We are working to solve this problem for a large number of known protein folds (a representative subset: about 1500 folds). (wikipedia.org)
  • Also known as the Angiopoietin-related proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Angiopoietin-related protein 7, gene ANGPTL7 Angiopoietin-related protein 8, gene ANGPTL8, also known as lipasin because of its capacity in LPL inhibition. (wikipedia.org)
  • Major urinary proteins (Mups), also known as α2u-globulins, are a subfamily of proteins found in abundance in the urine and other secretions of many animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • International Therapeutic Proteins (known as ITP) supplies antitoxins, antidotes to snake venoms and other biologics (biological therapeutics) to corporate and government clients. (wikipedia.org)
  • secretory
  • We will evaluate the possibility of soluble expression, secretory expression, correct modification and folding, production efficiency, necessity of purification steps and protein buffer formulation etc. (profacgen.com)
  • Misfolded secretory proteins are exported from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and degraded by the ER-associated degradation pathway (ERAD). (wikipedia.org)
  • structural
  • With customized technical strategies, flexible production scale, and proprietary technologies, we offer our clients highly efficient and high-quality recombinant protein production, process development and scale-up production for downstream applications such as functional assays, structural studies, target validation and high throughput screenings etc. (profacgen.com)
  • Microtubules are tube-like structural proteins that help chromosomes move throughout the cell. (unc.edu)
  • They are "modular" proteins because microtubules can add or subtract protein units to become longer or shorter, respectively, while continuing to provide the cell with structural support during cell division. (unc.edu)
  • structures
  • Kinetochores are the protein structures located at the intersection of the two sister chromatids that serves as an attachment site for microtubules and spindle fibers during cell division to help pull the two chromatids apart. (unc.edu)
  • This is an important step in understanding the interplay between the individual proteins within the functional structures of muscle", says Raunser. (redorbit.com)
  • The in vivo functioning of proteins depends critically on the chemical structure of individual peptide chains, but also on the detailed folding of the chains themselves and on their assembly into larger supramolecular structures. (springer.com)
  • These protein structures are usually related to one single physiological protein activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, Proteins includes a section entitled "Section Notes", describing novel protein structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • antiviral
  • CHICAGO (Reuters) U.S. researchers have discovered antiviral proteins in cells that naturally fight off influenza infections, a finding that may lead to better ways to make vaccines and protect people against the flu. (freerepublic.com)
  • humans
  • Notch-2 (Neurogenic locus notch homolog protein 2) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NOTCH2 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • So far, four families of this protein have been identified in humans which are IFIT1, IFIT2, IFIT3 and IFIT5 and other variants have been found in different species. (wikipedia.org)
  • The IFIT proteins that are produced in humans and mice are 40%-45% similar. (wikipedia.org)
  • Humans in good health excrete urine that is largely free of protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • family
  • Computing the 'Best Case' Probability of Proteins from Actual Data, and Falsifying a Prediction of Darwinism Kirk Durston July 28, 2015 4:52 PM Biological life requires thousands of different protein families, about 70 percent of which are 'globular' proteins, with a three-dimensional shape that is unique to each family of proteins. (freerepublic.com)
  • This is a large, functionally diverse protein family belonging to the AAA+ protein superfamily of ring-shaped P-loop NTPases, which exert their activity through the energy-dependent remodeling or translocation of macromolecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • In HslU, a bacterial ClpX/ClpY homologue of the HSP100 family of AAA proteins, the N- and C-terminal subdomains move towards each other when nucleotides are bound and hydrolysed. (wikipedia.org)
  • The PM-localized PIN proteins physically interact with a few members of the large PGP family of transporters that also work as auxin efflux carriers (PGP1 and PGP19 in Arabidopsis). (wikipedia.org)
  • The activity and localization of the PM-localized PIN proteins is regulated by several phosphorylations on their large cytosolic hydrophilic loop carried out by kinases of the AGC family (e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Major Intrinsic Protein (MIP) of the human lens of the eye (Aqp0), after which the MIP family was named, represents about 60% of the protein in the lens cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • MIP family proteins are believed to form aqueous pores that selectively allow passive transport of their solute(s) across the membrane with minimal apparent recognition. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some of the MIP family channels include: Mammalian major intrinsic protein (MIP). (wikipedia.org)
  • macromolecules
  • Like other biological macromolecules such as polysaccharides and nucleic acids , proteins are essential parts of organisms and participate in virtually every process within cells . (wikipedia.org)
  • actin
  • Ezrin, the prototype ERM protein, is a 585-amino acid polypeptide, first identified as a constituent of microvilli and shown to be present in actin-containing surface structure on a wide variety of cells. (springer.com)
  • Tsukita S, Yonemura S (1999) Cortical actin organization: lessons from ERM (ezrin/radixin/moesin) proteins. (springer.com)
  • Only after an influx of calcium, which docks onto the regulating proteins, is the binding site on the actin filament exposed. (redorbit.com)
  • structure
  • There are hundreds of types of proteins in the cell, each with its own function and physical structure. (unc.edu)
  • We study the chemical and physical structure of amino acids and proteins, describe the topology of proteins and discuss an important enzyme, penicillin amidase, in greater detail. (springer.com)
  • One of the great challenges in molecular biology is to determine the three-dimensional structure of large biomolecules such as proteins. (freerepublic.com)
  • A representation of the 3D structure of the protein myoglobin showing turquoise α-helices . (wikipedia.org)
  • This protein was the first to have its structure solved by X-ray crystallography . (wikipedia.org)
  • Methods commonly used to study protein structure and function include immunohistochemistry , site-directed mutagenesis , X-ray crystallography , nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry . (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteins: Structure, Function, and Bioinformatics is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by John Wiley & Sons, which was established in 1986 by Cyrus Levinthal. (wikipedia.org)
  • AAA proteins are divided into seven basic clades, based on secondary structure elements included within or near the core AAA fold: clamp loader, initiator, classic, superfamily III helicase, HCLR, H2-insert, and PS-II insert. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteins@Home was a large-scale non-profit protein structure prediction project utilizing distributed computing to perform a lot of computations in a small amount of time. (wikipedia.org)
  • substrate
  • AAA proteins couple chemical energy provided by ATP hydrolysis to conformational changes which are transduced into mechanical force exerted on a macromolecular substrate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most AAA proteins have additional domains that are used for oligomerization, substrate binding and/or regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • These proteins produce a molecular motor that couples ATP binding and hydrolysis to changes in conformational states that can be propagated through the assembly in order to act upon a target substrate, either translocating or remodelling the substrate. (wikipedia.org)
  • These motions can be transmitted to substrate protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • The basic recognition of proteins by AAAs is thought to occur through unfolded domains in the substrate protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • primarily
  • It was found that the proteins are primarily made in the liver of males and secreted through the kidneys into the urine in large quantities (milligrams per day). (wikipedia.org)
  • degradation
  • They are involved in processes such as DNA replication, protein degradation, membrane fusion, microtubule severing, peroxisome biogenesis, signal transduction and the regulation of gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prokaryotes have AAA which combine chaperone with proteolytic activity, for example in ClpAPS complex, which mediates protein degradation and recognition in E. coli. (wikipedia.org)
  • serum
  • Blood proteins, also termed plasma proteins or serum proteins, are proteins present in blood plasma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Contrary to popular belief, haemoglobin is not a blood protein, as it is carried within red blood cells, rather than in the blood serum. (wikipedia.org)
  • Serum albumin accounts for 55% of blood proteins, and is a major contributor to maintaining the osmotic pressure of plasma to assist in the transport of lipids and steroid hormones. (wikipedia.org)
  • Separating serum proteins by electrophoresis is a valuable diagnostic tool as well as a way to monitor clinical progress. (wikipedia.org)
  • Current research regarding blood plasma proteins is centered on performing proteomics analyses of serum/plasma in the search for biomarkers. (wikipedia.org)
  • The normal laboratory value of serum total protein is around 7 g/dL. (wikipedia.org)
  • scientists
  • Like a mentor helping medical students choose between specialties, a protein complex helps shape the destiny of developing T cells, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital scientists have reported. (stjude.org)
  • Therefore, since 1827 physicians and scientists have been interested in proteinuria, the excess of protein in human urine, as an indicator of kidney disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Between 1932 and 1933 a number of scientists, including Thomas Addis, independently reported the surprising finding that some healthy rodents have protein in their urine. (wikipedia.org)
  • function
  • Bretscher A, Chambers D, Nguyen R et al (2000) ERM-Merlin and EBP50 protein families in plasma membrane organization and function. (springer.com)
  • Transformer proteins (TFPs) are proteins that can transform from one conformation to a different one and simultaneously change their function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Globulins make up 38% of blood proteins and transport ions, hormones, and lipids assisting in immune function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ultimately, the name SIR had the most staying power, because it most accurately describes the function of the encoded proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Trithorax-group (trxG) proteins maintain the active state of gene expression while the Polycomb-group (PcG) proteins counteract this activation with a repressive function that is stable over many cell generations and can only be overcome by germline differentiation processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Complement
  • Examples of specific blood proteins: Prealbumin (transthyretin) Alpha 1 antitrypsin (neutralizes trypsin that has leaked from the digestive system) Alpha 1 acid glycoprotein Alpha 1 fetoprotein alpha2-macroglobulin Gamma globulins Beta-2 microglobulin Haptoglobin Ceruloplasmin Complement component 3 Complement component 4 C-reactive protein (CRP) Lipoproteins (chylomicrons, VLDL, LDL, HDL) Transferrin Prothrombin MBL or MBP Anderson NL, Anderson NG (1977). (wikipedia.org)
  • insoluble
  • This hypothesis was, however, challenged by observations that proteins could fold in two alternative conformations, such as the prion proteins which exist in a physiologially active cellular form and an insoluble form. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecular
  • Proteins are considered the molecular "workers" of the cell because they are present in all areas and processes of the cell. (unc.edu)
  • Dyneins, one of the three major classes of motor protein, are AAA proteins which couple their ATPase activity to molecular motion along microtubules. (wikipedia.org)
  • These proteins are generally produced during viral infection, Interferon (IFN) treatment, and during pathogen recognition (Pathogen associated molecular pattern recognition) by the immune system during infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • novel
  • This requires novel and refined proce- ing methods by which the protein isolate can be converted into a form in which it can be utilized. (springer.com)
  • Plasma
  • MIPs are classified into five subfamilies in higher plants, including plasma membrane (PIPs), tonoplast (TIPs), NOD26-like (NIPs), small basic (SIPs) and unclassified X (XIPs) intrinsic proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • One of the plant clusters includes only tonoplast (TIP) proteins, while another includes plasma membrane (PIP) proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • InterPro: IPR012269) These proteins form water-specific channels that provide the plasma membranes of red cells, as well as kidney proximal and collecting tubules with high permeability to water, thereby permitting water to move in the direction of an osmotic gradient. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stable
  • Stable cell line construction for large amount of protein expression is also available for both research use and industrial production. (profacgen.com)