• pathway
  • The twin-arginine translocation (Tat) pathway is one of two general protein transport systems found in the prokaryotic cytoplasmic membrane and is conserved in the thylakoid membrane of plant chloroplasts. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The defining, and highly unusual, property of the Tat pathway is that it transports folded proteins, a task that must be achieved without allowing appreciable ion leakage across the membrane. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The integral membrane TatC protein is the central component of the Tat pathway. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Consistent with a typical predicted salicylic acid (SA)-responsive element and four predicted ABA-responsive elements (ABREs) in the promoter sequence of ZmCHC1 , the expression of ZmCHC1 instead of ZmCHC2 in maize roots is significantly up-regulated by SA or ABA, suggesting that ZmCHC1 gene may be involved in the SA signaling pathway in maize defense responses. (mdpi.com)
  • The CCVs are uncoated in seconds to form uncoated vesicles that fuse with the early endosome (EE) where the cargo is further sorted, either for recycling back to the plasma membrane, or kept in the endocytic pathway to later endosomes, lysosomes and vacuoles for degradation [ 4 , 5 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • The classical endoplasmic reticulum (ER)/Golgi-dependent secretion pathway in eukaryotes is well-defined and involves recognition of an N-terminal signal peptide that is cleaved off as the protein is translocated across the membrane ( Von Heijne, 1990 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Sorting of yeast membrane proteins into an endosome-to-Golgi pathway involves direct interaction of their cytosolic domains with Vps35p. (nih.gov)
  • The yeast protein RPN11, which interacts with YPL225W, has a homolog in humans that is a metalloprotease component of 26S proteasome that also degrades proteins targeted for destruction by the ubiquitin pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • A study using FLAG affinity purification mass spectrometry (AP-MS) to profile protein interactions in the Hippo signaling pathway identified C7orf43 as one of the interacting proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • AMOTL2 is also known to be an inhibitor of Wnt signaling, a pathway with known associations to cancer development, and to be a factor for angiogenesis, a process essential to tumour maintenance and metastasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • metabolism
  • In later developmental stages the capacity for matrix organic acid metabolism was evident, accompanied by the appearance of proteins for TCA cycle components, and coordination of electron transport chain assembly through components encoded in both mitochondrial and nuclear genomes. (deepdyve.com)
  • endocytosis
  • In eukaryotic cells, endocytosis is essential for regulation of the protein and lipid compositions of the plasma membrane and for acquisition or removal of material from the extracellular medium [ 1 , 2 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • After being appointed at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, his research focused on the (i) basis of enveloped viruses assembly, and (ii) the mechanisms of membrane protein sorting and endocytosis in polarized epithelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • recognition
  • The signal recognition particle (SRP)-induced translation arrest and photo-cross-linking demonstrated that SRP recognized the TMD of rTom20-GFP, but with reduced affinity, while the positive charge at the COOH-terminal flanking segment inhibited the translation arrest. (nih.gov)
  • These data strongly support a model in which Vps35p acts as a "receptor" protein for recognition of the retrieval signal domains of cargo proteins during their recruitment into retrograde vesicles. (nih.gov)
  • Characteristics of the internalization signal in the Y543 influenza virus hemagglutinin suggest a model for recognition of internalization signals containing tyrosine. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Membrane Occupation and Recognition Nexus is a repeat is found in multiple copies in several proteins including junctophilins. (wikipedia.org)
  • peptide
  • Thus, previous versions of SignalP retain value for oomycete effector prediction, as the current version, SignalP 4, was unable to reliably predict the signal peptide of the oomycete Crinkler effectors in the test set. (frontiersin.org)
  • This is because proteins are localised by cell machinery that recognises signal peptide sequences (similar to a postal address) and moves the protein the appropriate location. (wikipedia.org)
  • The signal peptide is often cleaved off after the destination is reached. (wikipedia.org)
  • PSORT uses known signal peptide sequences to analyse and predict what an input sequence is most likely to cause a localisation to. (wikipedia.org)
  • By analysing a signal peptide sequence and visual localisation by GFP expression, strong evidence is obtained for this role. (wikipedia.org)
  • C7orf43 is mostly uncharged, and this neutral charge distribution is conserved in mammals and reptiles, but bony fishes have at least one negative charge cluster C7orf43 is predicted to have no signal peptide in its first 70 amino acid residues. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein does not contain a peptide signal protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • One notable exception to this is p21 protein, which appears to be ubiquitylated using its N-terminal amine, thus forming a peptide bond with ubiquitin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mitochondrial
  • Whelan, James 2004-10-06 00:00:00 Mitochondrial biogenesis requires a coordinated expression of both the nuclear and the organellar genomes and specific intracellular protein trafficking, processing and assembly machinery. (deepdyve.com)
  • We review our present knowledge on components and mechanisms involved in the mitochondrial protein import process in plants. (deepdyve.com)
  • The mitochondrial protein processing in plants is catalysed by the mitochondrial processing peptidase (MPP), which in contrast to other sources, is integrated into the bc1 complex of the respiratory chain. (deepdyve.com)
  • and mechanisms in volv ed in the mitochondrial protein import process in plants. (deepdyve.com)
  • During the first 48 h following imbibition, an ordered increase in the abundance of transcripts encoding mitochondrial proteins was observed. (deepdyve.com)
  • Co-incident with these changes in transcript levels was dynamic and rapid changes in mitochondrial protein content and mitochondrial function. (deepdyve.com)
  • Proteins representing components of the mitochondrial protein import apparatus are strikingly abundant in dry seeds, and a functional import apparatus was shown to operate 2 h after imbibition. (deepdyve.com)
  • Characterization of the signal that directs Tom20 to the mitochondrial outer membrane. (nih.gov)
  • glycoprotein
  • The best characterized archaeosortase target is the Haloferax volcanii S-layer glycoprotein, an extensively modified protein with O-linked glycosylations, N-linked glycosylations, and a large prenyl-derived lipid modification toward the C-terminus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Measles virus matrix protein specifies apical virus release and glycoprotein sorting in epithelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lysosomal-associated membrane protein 1 (LAMP-1) also known as lysosome-associated membrane glycoprotein 1 and CD107a (Cluster of Differentiation 107a), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LAMP1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lysosomal-associated membrane protein 1 is a glycoprotein from a family of Lysosome-associated membrane glycoproteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • mediate
  • Characterization of the transport signals that mediate the nucleocytoplasmic traffic of low risk HPV11 E7. (nextbio.com)
  • 273, 26862-26869 O-linked glycans mediate apical sorting of human intestinal sucrase-isomaltase through association with lipid rafts. (wikipedia.org)
  • internalization
  • Hussein Naim is a Lebanese-Swiss biochemist and molecular virologist, known for his research in cell biology (membrane protein sorting and internalization) and virology (measles, SARS, HIV and Influenza). (wikipedia.org)
  • 269, 3928-3933 Apical and basolateral coated pits of MDCK cells differ in their rates of maturation into coated vesicles, but not in the ability to distinguish between hemagglutinin proteins with different internalization signals. (wikipedia.org)
  • prediction
  • Computational prediction of secreted proteins from genomic sequences is an important technique to narrow down the candidate effector repertoire for subsequent experimental validation. (frontiersin.org)
  • In general, prediction tools take as input information about a protein, such as a protein sequence of amino acids, and produce a predicted location within the cell as output, such as the nucleus, Endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, extracellular space, or other organelles. (wikipedia.org)
  • The development of protein subcellular location prediction has been summarized in two comprehensive review articles. (wikipedia.org)
  • By using prediction a high number of proteins can be assessed in order to find candidates that are trafficked to the desired location. (wikipedia.org)
  • PSORT is a bioinformatics tool used for the prediction of protein localisation sites in cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • yeast
  • In yeast, there are at least two vesicle populations upon ER (endoplasmic reticulum) exit, one containing Gap1p (general aminoacid permease) and a glycosylated α-factor, gpαF (glycosylated proα-factor), and the other containing GPI (glycosylphosphatidylinositol)-anchored proteins, Gas1p (glycophospholipid-anchored surface protein) and Yps1p. (biochemj.org)
  • We found that mutant Gas1 proteins that lack a GPI anchor and/or S/T region (serine- and threonine-rich region), two common characteristic features conserved among yeast GPI-anchored proteins, were still sorted away from Gap1p-containing vesicles. (biochemj.org)
  • The exact function of the gene is poorly understood, but the polysaccharide biosynthesis domain that spans a major portion of the protein product (known as UPF0368), as well as the yeast homolog, YPL225, offer insights into its possible function. (wikipedia.org)
  • interactions
  • Cellular pathways relay information through dynamic protein interactions. (nih.gov)
  • poly-N-acetyllactosamine groups which are involved in interactions with selectin and other glycan-binding proteins LAMP1 and LAMP2 glycoproteins comprise 50% of all lysosomal membrane proteins, and are thought to be responsible in part for maintaining lysosomal integrity, pH and catabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • orthologs
  • The other 286 amino acids are less conserved among orthologs (especially distant orthologs) and belong to no known protein family. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Morn repeats are not identical, but follow a general pattern of beginning with a YeG seqeuence, and specifically the subsequent Glycine residues are well conserved even within microbial orthologs which may suggest that the glycine residues may be important and/or involved in some structural function of the protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • The orthologs of the Morn1 protein are listed below obtained by BLAST analysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • A fairly highly conserved protein, MEGF8 has conserved orthologs from P. paniscus to N. vectensis. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequences
  • The high similarities of gene structure, protein sequences and 3D models among ZmCHC1 , and Arabidopsis AtCHC1 and AtCHC2 suggest their similar functions in CME. (mdpi.com)
  • We observe that for a set of fungal SwissProt protein sequences, SignalP 4 and the neural network predictors of SignalP 3 ( D -score) and SignalP 2 perform best. (frontiersin.org)
  • Alignment of the 55 α1S amino acids containing the targeting signal with the corresponding sequences of α1C and α1A. (nih.gov)
  • complex
  • What are the biochemical consequences of the integration of the MPP into an oligomeric protein complex and how are several hundred presequences of precursor proteins with no sequence similarities and no consensus for cleavage, specifically cleaved off by MPP? (deepdyve.com)
  • TatC then recruits TatA family proteins to form the active translocation complex. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The formation of retrograde vesicles from the prevacuolar compartment and the selective recruitment of vesicular cargo are thought to be mediated by a peripheral membrane retromer protein complex. (nih.gov)
  • A protein surface region of VHL's beta-sheet domain was identified as a discrete [H+]-responsive nucleolar detention signal that targets the VHL/Cullin-2 ubiquitin ligase complex to nucleoli in response to physiological fluctuations in environmental pH. (nih.gov)
  • The RING-finger E3 ligases are the largest family and contain ligases such as the anaphase-promoting complex (APC) and the SCF complex (Skp1-Cullin-F-box protein complex). (wikipedia.org)
  • F-box proteins contain an F-box, which binds the rest of the SCF complex, and a substrate binding domain, which gives the E3 its substrate specificity. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequence
  • Mapping of the COOH terminus revealed a triad-targeting signal contained in the 55 amino-acid sequence (1607-1661) proximal to the putative clipping site of alpha(1S). (nih.gov)
  • As shown in the alignment, the protein is highly conserved chemically, although the exact sequence varies. (wikipedia.org)
  • The names of both families of proteins reflect roles analogous to sortases in Gram-positive bacteria, with which they share no sequence homology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Then it analyses the input sequence by applying the stored rules for various sequence features of known protein sorting signals. (wikipedia.org)
  • The second is a multidomain uncharacterized protein conserved in bacteria: COG4642 which contains the MORN repeat region plus the beginning target sequence (1-211). (wikipedia.org)
  • The ATRNL1 protein is approximately half the length of MEGF8, and contains several of the same conserved domains, including the CUB domain and transmembrane sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using SAPS, a Statistical Analysis of Protein Sequence software, amino acid bias was able to be determined. (wikipedia.org)
  • The primary mRNA transcript sequence has 1214 base pairs and its protein product, UPF0368,is composed of 233 amino acids and has a predicted mass of 26,057 Da. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulates
  • Ubiquitination by E3 ligases regulates diverse areas such as cell trafficking, DNA repair, and signaling and is of profound importance in cell biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • interacts
  • Chemical cross-linking, followed by coimmunoprecipitation, demonstrated that Vps35p interacts with the cytosolic domain of A-ALP, a model late-Golgi membrane protein, in a retrieval signal-dependent manner. (nih.gov)
  • found that Fam158a interacts with a protein called TTC35. (wikipedia.org)
  • The E2 enzyme interacts with a specific E3 partner and transfers the ubiquitin to the target protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • interaction
  • These results suggest that the interaction of gpαF with Erv29p is essential for sorting into Gap1p-containing vesicles. (biochemj.org)
  • The genomic context may not necessarily infer function, but Morn1 has been predicted to contain a second peroxisomal targeting signal using PSORTII at residues 451: RLPPAFKHL, which may suggest interaction with PEX10 (see genomic context above). (wikipedia.org)
  • Both homologs show interaction with multiple ubiquinated proteins as well as the transcriptional enzyme RNA polymerase II. (wikipedia.org)
  • Endosomes
  • The encoded protein is required for the activity of a vacuolar ATPase, which is responsible for proton pumping occurring in the acidification of endosomes and lysosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Computational
  • Through the development of new approaches in computer science, coupled with an increased dataset of proteins of known localization, computational tools can now provide fast and accurate localization predictions for many organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • ubiquitin
  • We have assessed the kinetic properties of the murine double minute protein (MDM2) and von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) ubiquitin ligases in living cells under physiological conditions that alter the stability of their respective p53 and hypoxia-inducible factor substrates. (nih.gov)
  • Human FAM158A and its paralogs in other species are part of the uncharacterized protein family UPF0172 family, which is a subset of the JAB1/Mov34/MPN/PAD-1 ubiquitin protease protein family. (wikipedia.org)
  • A ubiquitin ligase (also called an E3 ubiquitin ligase) is a protein that recruits an E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme that has been loaded with ubiquitin, recognizes a protein substrate, and assists or directly catalyzes the transfer of ubiquitin from the E2 to the protein substrate. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ubiquitin is attached to a lysine on the target protein by an isopeptide bond. (wikipedia.org)
  • In enzymology, an ubiquitin-protein ligase (EC 6.3.2.19) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + ubiquitin + protein lysine ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } AMP + diphosphate + protein N-ubiquityllysine The 3 substrates of this enzyme are ATP, ubiquitin, and a lysine residue on a protein, whereas its 3 products are AMP, diphosphate, and protein N-ubiquityllysine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Canonical ubiquitylation creates an isopeptide bond between a lysine residue on a target protein and the ubiquitin C-terminal Glycine 76. (wikipedia.org)
  • The systematic name of this enzyme class is ubiquitin:protein-lysine N-ligase (AMP-forming). (wikipedia.org)
  • Ubiquitin signaling relies on the diversity of ubiquitin tags for the specificity of its message. (wikipedia.org)
  • A protein can be tagged with a single ubiquitin molecule (monoubiquitylation), or variety of different chains of ubiquitin molecules (polyubiquitylation). (wikipedia.org)
  • E3 ubiquitin ligases catalyze polyubiquitination events much in the same way as the single ubiquitylation mechanism, using instead a lysine residue from a ubiquitin molecule currently attached to substrate protein to attack the C-terminus of a new ubiquitin molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • membranes
  • Confocal laser microscopy observations of transgenic liverwort plants expressing a fluorescent fusion protein that localizes to the chloroplast outer envelope membrane (OEP7-Citrine) showed that neighboring chloroplast membranes did not fuse during the cold-positioning response. (springer.com)
  • mutation
  • By genetic and biochemical means we now show that Vps35p directly associates with the cytosolic domains of cargo proteins.Furthermore, mutations in the cytosolic domains of A-ALP and another cargo protein, Vps10p, were identified that suppressed cargo-specific mutations in Vps35p but did not suppress the retrieval defects of a vps35 mutation.Suppression was shown to be due to an improvement in protein sorting at the prevacuolar compartment. (nih.gov)
  • Furthermore, mutations in the cytosolic domains of A-ALP and another cargo protein, Vps10p, were identified that suppressed cargo-specific mutations in Vps35p but did not suppress the retrieval defects of a vps35 mutation. (nih.gov)
  • cytosolic
  • Expression in Arabidopsis cells of cDNAs encoding each of these KATs fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP) at their C-termini showed that three are targeted to peroxisomes while the fourth is apparently cytosolic. (deepdyve.com)
  • By genetic and biochemical means we now show that Vps35p directly associates with the cytosolic domains of cargo proteins. (nih.gov)
  • The cytosolic domain residues previously shown to comprise a PVC-to-TGN retrieval signal (Nothwehr et al. (nih.gov)