• encode
  • It is estimated that 20-30% of all genes in most genomes encode membrane proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The genomes of higher plants, including Arabidopsis thaliana , Glycine max (soybean), Oryza sativa (rice), and Zea mays (maize), encode approximately 10 to 20 members of the PDI family, which show wide variation in the organization of their thioredoxin (TRX)-fold domains [ 4 , 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Simulation
  • Covering experiment and theory, bioinformatics approaches, and state-of-the-art simulation protocols for better sampling of the conformational space, this volume describes a broad range of techniques to study, predict, and analyze the protein folding process. (springer.com)
  • This chapter introduces a novel protein folding simulation model which involves several stages. (springer.com)
  • A diffusion theory-based, all-physical ab initio protein folding simulation is described and applied. (hindawi.com)
  • These predictions are among the best for an all ab initio protein simulation. (hindawi.com)
  • This work introduces an ab initio physical drift and diffusion-based protein structure prediction simulation that runs on a desktop PC. (hindawi.com)
  • They could do isotopic replacement studies to get ideas about which hydrogrens or nitrogens or carbons were kinetically involved in the folding process and see whether the same atoms were important in the simulation. (slashdot.org)
  • biogenesis
  • TC# 5.A.1.1.1) (2) the cytochrome c-type biogenesis proteins, CcdA (TC# 5.A.1.2.1) of Paracoccus pantotrophus and Bacillus subtilis. (wikipedia.org)
  • amyloid
  • Several neurodegenerative and other diseases are believed to result from the accumulation of amyloid fibrils formed by misfolded proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (Mad Cow Disease), native proteins re-fold into a different stable conformation, which causes fatal amyloid buildup. (wikipedia.org)
  • electron
  • These methods include: Mass spectrometry Macromolecular crystallography Proteolysis Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of proteins (NMR) Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) Cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) Multiangle light scattering Small angle scattering Ultrafast laser spectroscopy Dual-polarization interferometry and circular dichroism Most often researchers use them to study the "native states" of macromolecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • In order to reverse the reaction, electrons are transferred from dithiol proteins in the periplasm to an electron acceptor in the cytoplasm as follows: reduced proteinperiplasm → DsbAperiplasm → DsbBmembrane → quinonesmembrane → reductasemembrane→ terminal electron acceptorcytoplasm (e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytochrome
  • For cytochrome c and some other proteins, it has been shown that the molten globule state is a "thermodynamic state" clearly different both from the native and the denatured state, demonstrating for the first time the existence of a third equilibirum (i.e., intermediate) state. (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane
  • Membrane proteins interact with biological membranes either by inserting into it, or being tethered via a covalently attached lipid. (wikipedia.org)
  • They constitute one of the main types of protein (alongside globular, fibrous and membrane proteins). (wikipedia.org)
  • The DsbD protein is membrane-embedded with a putative N-terminal transmembrane segment (TMS) plus 8 additionalTMSs. (wikipedia.org)
  • bovine
  • The drug aprotinin (Trasylol, previously Bayer and now Nordic Group pharmaceuticals), is a small protein bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI), or basic trypsin inhibitor of bovine pancreas, which is an antifibrinolytic molecule that inhibits trypsin and related proteolytic enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • molten
  • IDPs cover a spectrum of states from fully unstructured to partially structured and include random coils, (pre-)molten globules, and large multi-domain proteins connected by flexible linkers. (wikipedia.org)
  • The reduction of the amount of molten globule during folding also led to significantly higher refolding yields compared to that of the wild-type (Karlsson et al. (liu.se)
  • The term "molten globule" is extended to include various types of partially folded protein states found in mildly denaturing conditions such as low pH (generally pH = 2), mild denaturant, or high temperature. (wikipedia.org)
  • The molten globule ensembles sampled during protein folding and unfolding are thought to be roughly similar. (wikipedia.org)
  • Is the molten globule a third phase of proteins? (wikipedia.org)
  • matrices
  • The roles of such proteins include protection and support, forming Connective tissue, tendons, bone matrices, and muscle fiber. (wikipedia.org)